Volume 4.17 | May 3

Human Immunology News 4.17 May 3, 2016
Human Immunology News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Phase Separation of Signaling Molecules Promotes T Cell Receptor Signal Transduction
Scientists biochemically reconstituted a 12-component signaling pathway on model membranes, beginning with T cell receptor (TCR) activation and ending with actin assembly. When TCR phosphorylation was triggered, downstream signaling proteins spontaneously separated into liquid-like clusters that promoted signaling outputs both in vitro and in human Jurkat T cells. [Science] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Effector T Cells Abrogate Stroma-Mediated Chemoresistance in Ovarian Cancer
Researchers demonstrated that glutathione and cysteine released by fibroblasts contribute to this resistance. CD8+ T cells abolish the resistance by altering glutathione and cystine metabolism in fibroblasts. [Cell]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Update on the Safety and Efficacy of Retroviral Gene Therapy for Immunodeficiency Due to Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency
Scientists investigated the medium-term outcome of gene therapy in 18 patients with adenosine deaminase-severe combined immunodeficiency for whom an HLA-identical family donor was not available. Immune reconstitution was demonstrated by normalization of T cell subsets, evidence of thymopoiesis, and sustained T cell proliferative capacity. [Blood] Abstract

Extracellular Vesicles Released by CD40/IL-4 Stimulated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells Confer Altered Functional Properties to CD4+ T Cells
In order to characterize tumor extracellular vesicles (EVs) released in response to T cell-derived tumor microenvironment signals, scientists performed microRNA profiling of EVs released from chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells stimulated with CD40 and IL-4. [Blood] Abstract

Naïve and Memory B Cells Exhibit Distinct Biochemical Responses Following BCR Engagement
Researchers investigated the nature of BCR signaling in human splenic naïve, IgM+ memory and isotype switched memory B cells following multivalent BCR crosslinking. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

IL-10 Promotes Homeostatic Proliferation of Human CD8+ Memory T Cells and, When Produced by CD1c+ DCs, Shapes Naive CD8+ T-Cell Priming
Investigators analyzed the role of interleukin (IL)-10 produced by human APC subsets in T-cell responses. IL-10 production was restricted to CD1c+ dendritic cells (DCs) and CD14+ monocytes. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

IL-9 Promotes the Survival and Function of Human Melanoma – Infiltrating CD4+CD8+ Double-Positive T Cells
The authors documented that melanoma-infiltrating CD4+CD8+ double-positive T cells express a high level of the IL-9 receptor, which prompted them to investigate the impact of IL-9 on their biology. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

Distribution and Molecular Characterization of Human Adenovirus and Epstein-Barr Virus Infections in Tonsillar Lymphocytes Isolated from Patients Diagnosed with Tonsillar Diseases
Researchers characterized the distribution of human adenovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and human cytomegalovirus in purified tonsillar T and B cell-enriched fractions isolated from three patient age groups diagnosed with tonsillar hypertrophy and chronic/recurrent tonsillitis. [PLoS One] Full Article

Delayed Adaptive Immunity Is Related to Higher MMR Vaccine-Induced Antibody Titers in Children
Researchers investigated whether early-life environmental factors and adaptive immune maturation prior and close to measles–mumps–rubella (MMR) immunization relate to magnitudes of vaccine-specific antibody titers. [Clin Transl Immunol] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Emerging Insights into Natural Killer Cells in Human Peripheral Tissues
Scientists provide a comprehensive overview of the emerging knowledge about the development, differentiation and function of human natural killer (NK) cell populations, with a particular focus on NK cells in peripheral tissues. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

Local Innate Immune Responses in the Vaccine Adjuvant-Injected Muscle
The authors focus on the initial innate immune events that occur locally at the site of intramuscular vaccine delivery, and how they are influenced by clinically approved vaccine adjuvants. [Clin Transl Immunol] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.

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SCIENCE NEWS
Genentech Highlights Personalized Medicines and Cancer Immunotherapies
Genentech announced new results from 19 approved and investigational medicines will be presented. More than 200 abstracts have been accepted across eight cancer types, including four “late breakers” and nearly 30 oral presentations. [Press release from Genentech, Inc. discussing research to be presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) 2016 Annual Meeting, Chicago] Press Release

Opexa to Attend the Third International Conference on the Progress of Regenerative Medicine and Its Cultural Impact
Neil K. Warma, Opexa’s President and Chief Executive Officer, will present “Can T-Cells be Used to Treat Neuromyelitis Optica and Other Autoimmune Disorders?” [Press release from Opexa Therapeutics discussing research presented at Cellular Horizons: The Third International Conference on the Progress of Regenerative Medicine and its Cultural Impact, Vatican City] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Government of Canada Combats Chronic Health Conditions
The Honorable Jane Philpott, Minister of Health, announced an investment of $16 million over five years to support new research that will help find new ways to prevent or treat chronic conditions affecting millions of Canadians. [Government of Canada] Press Release

TG Therapeutics, Inc. Launches First Clinical Trial in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) for TG-1101 (Ublituximab)
TG Therapeutics, Inc. announced the opening of its Phase II clinical study of ublituximab, the company’s glycoengineered anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, in patients with relapsing remitting MS, a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. [TG Therapeutics, Inc.] Press Release

SELLAS Life Sciences Group Announces Initiation of Galinpepimut-S (WT1 Cancer Vaccine) Phase I Clinical Trial in Combination with PD-1 Checkpoint Inhibitor for Patients with Ovarian Cancer
SELLAS Life Sciences Group announced the initiation of a Phase I clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of SELLAS’s galinpepimut-S in combination with nivolumab (Opdivo®), Bristol- Myers Squibb’s PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor. [SELLAS Life Sciences Group] Press Release

Agenus Commences Phase I Clinical Trial of Its CTLA-4 Checkpoint Antibody to Treat Solid Tumors
Agenus Inc. announced that the first patient has been dosed in the company’s Phase I clinical trial of AGEN1884, an anti-CTLA-4 checkpoint antibody. The open-label, multicenter trial in patients with advanced or refractory cancer is designed to evaluate the safety of AGEN1884 and determine the estimated maximum tolerated dose. [Agenus Inc.] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 2016 National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Cancer Conference
November 6-9, 2016
Liverpool, United Kingdom

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Technische Universität München)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Biology & Cancer Immunology (Fox Chase Cancer Center)

Research Technologist – T Cell Immunology (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Erasmus MC)

Faculty Positions – Microbiology and Immunology (National University of Singapore)

Engineering Project Lead (Cytonome)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (University of Wisconsin – Madison)

Postdoctoral Researchers – Tumor Immunology and Cancer Immunotherapy (University of California, Los Angeles)


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