Volume 4.15 | Apr 19

Human Immunology News 4.15 April 19, 2016
Human Immunology News
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Vaccination during Myeloid Cell Depletion by Cancer Chemotherapy Fosters Robust T Cell Responses
Investigators explored whether human papillomavirus type 16 synthetic long peptides vaccination can be combined with standard carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy to improve immunity and which time point would be optimal for vaccination. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
NADPH Oxidase Deficiency Underlies Dysfunction of Aged CD8+ Tregs
Scientists determined that older individuals fail to generate immunosuppressive CD8+CCR7+ Tregs, a defect that is even more pronounced in the age-related vasculitic syndrome giant cell arteritis. They identified deficiency of NADPH oxidase 2 as the molecular underpinning of CD8 Treg failure in the older individuals and in patients with giant cell arteritis. [J Clin Invest] Full Article | Press Release

Neutrophil-Derived Alpha Defensins Control Inflammation by Inhibiting Macrophage mRNA Translation
Scientists previously reported that alpha defensins, released from apoptotic human neutrophils, augmented the antimicrobial capacity of macrophages while also inhibiting the biosynthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. Here they showed that human neutrophil peptide 1 enters macrophages and inhibits protein translation without inducing the unfolded-protein response or affecting mRNA stability. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA]
Abstract | Press Release

Genomic Correlates of Immune-Cell Infiltrates in Colorectal Carcinoma
Researchers investigated the genomic correlates of immune-cell infiltration and found that higher neoantigen load was positively associated with overall lymphocytic infiltration, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, memory T cells, and colorectal cancer-specific survival. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

MAIT Cells Reside in the Female Genital Mucosa and Are Biased towards IL-17 and IL-22 Production in Response to Bacterial Stimulation
Investigators found that mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells and MR1+ antigen-presenting cells were present in the upper and lower female genital tract, with distinct tissue localization of MAIT cells in endometrium vs. cervix. [Mucosal Immunol] Full Article

Mycobacteria-Responsive Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Mediates Programmed Death-Ligand 1- and Prostaglandin E2-Induced Regulatory T Cell Expansion
Investigators demonstrated that mycobacteria-responsive sonic hedgehog signaling in human dendritic cells leads to programmed death ligand-1 expression and cyclooxygenase-2-catalyzed prostaglandin E2 that orchestrate mycobacterial infection-induced expansion of regulatory T cells . [Sci Rep] Full Article

Human Macrophages Induce CD4+Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells via Binding and Re-Release of TGF-β
As a prerequisite for eventual translation of immunosuppressive macrophages (M2) therapy into clinical settings investigators studied the induction, stability and mechanism of generation of human induced regulatory T cells by M2 macrophages generated with IL-4/IL-10/TGF-β. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

IL-1β Limits the Extent of Human 6-Sulfo LacNAc Dendritic Cell (slanDC)-Mediated NK Cell Activation and Regulates CD95-Induced Apoptosis
Previously, it was shown that natural killer (NK) cells communicate with slanDCs, which are able to stimulate NK cells in vitro. In this study, researchers investigated how slanDCs regulate the level of NK cell activation. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

OX40, PD-1 and CTLA-4 Are Selectively Expressed on Tumor-Infiltrating T Cells in Head and Neck Cancer
Researchers investigated the expression of the known immune-modulatory proteins OX40, programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck on different T-cell subsets of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes to ascertain whether these proteins could potentially be targeted alone or in combination for future clinical trials. [Clin Transl Immunol] Full Article

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Mechanism-Driven Biomarkers to Guide Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer Therapy
The authors discuss biomarkers for anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) therapy based on immunological, genetic and virological criteria. The unique biology of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4 immune checkpoint, compared with PD1, requires a different approach to biomarker development. [Nat Rev Cancer] Abstract

The Human Vaccines Project: A Roadmap for Cancer Vaccine Development
Investigators argue that a concerted international effort is necessary to understand the human antitumor immune response and achieve clinically effective cancer vaccines. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.
Patients with EGFR Expressing Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Benefit Most from Necitumumab Added to Chemotherapy
Patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expressing advanced squamous non-small-cell lung cancer benefit most from necitumumab added to gemcitabine and cisplatin chemotherapy, according to a subgroup analysis from the SQUIRE trial. [Press release from the European Society for Medical Oncology discussing research presented at the 2016 European Lung Cancer Conference (ELCC), Geneva] Press Release

Engineering T Cells to Treat Pancreatic Cancer
Sunil Hingorani, a member of the Clinical Research and Public Health Sciences divisions at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, will present recent groundbreaking developments in treating pancreas cancer with engineered T-cells. [Press release from Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (Newswise, Inc.) discussing research presented at the 2016 American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting, New Orleans] Press Release

Antibody Therapy Reduces Cancer Stem Cells in Multiple Myeloma
An experimental antibody treatment decreased by half the number of cancer stem cells that drive the growth of tumors in nearly all patients with multiple myeloma, a cancer of the bone marrow and bone tissue, according to results of a preliminary clinical trial led by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientists. [Press release from The Johns Hopkins University discussing research presented at the 2016 American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting, New Orleans] Press Release

New Biomarker Data to Be Presented at AACR Helps Predict Overall Survival in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Treated with Ceplene® and Low-Dose IL-2 Immunotherapy, including Those over 60 Years of Age
Scientists from Gothenburg University, Sweden reported data on an immune mechanism-based biomarker to predict the potential efficacy of treatment with Ceplene® in the difficult-to-treat above 60 year old population with AML. [Press release from Immune Pharmaceuticals Inc. discussing research presented at the 2016 American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting, New Orleans] Press Release | Poster

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Stanford Medicine to Join New Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy
A center is being created at Stanford Medicine as part of the new Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, a multi-institution effort established with a $250 million grant from the Parker Foundation. [Stanford Medicine] Press Release

University of Pennsylvania to Join First-of-Its-Kind Research Collaboration to Fight Cancer with New Immunotherapies
The University of Pennsylvania has joined an unprecedented cancer research effort, the Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, which unites six of the nation’s top medical schools and cancer centers around a shared aim of accelerating breakthrough immunotherapy research that will turn more cancers into a curable disease. The venture is backed by a $250 million gift from the Parker Foundation, making it the largest single contribution ever made to the field of immunotherapy. [University of Pennsylvania] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Nordic Life Science Days 2016
September 14-15, 2016
Stockholm, Sweden

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Erasmus MC)

NEW Faculty Positions – Microbiology and Immunology (National University of Singapore)

Scientist – Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Engineering Project Lead (Cytonome)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (University of Wisconsin – Madison)

Postdoctoral Position or Research Scientist – Mucosal Immunology (Qu Biologics)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard)

Postdoctoral Researchers – Tumor Immunology and Cancer Immunotherapy (University of California, Los Angeles)

Tenure-Track Position – Immunology (Massachusetts General Hospital)

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