Volume 4.14 | Apr 12

Human Immunology News 4.14 April 12, 2016
Human Immunology News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Building Immunity: Scientists Recreate a T-Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway
By successfully re-creating a T-cell receptor signaling pathway independent of the cell itself, scientists gained novel insights into how protein signaling works in a complex cellular process. [Press release from the Whitman Center of the Marine Biological Laboratory discussing online prepublication in Science]
Press Release | Video | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Dissecting the Multicellular Ecosystem of Metastatic Melanoma by Single-Cell RNA-Seq
Single-cell analyses suggested distinct tumor microenvironmental patterns, including cell-to-cell interactions. Analysis of tumor-infiltrating T cells revealed exhaustion programs, their connection to T cell activation and clonal expansion, and their variability across patients. [Science] Abstract

Tumoral Immune Cell Exploitation in Colorectal Cancer Metastases Can Be Targeted Effectively by Anti-CCR5 Therapy in Cancer Patients
Analyzing the invasive margin of human colorectal cancer liver metastases, investigators identified a mechanism of immune cell exploitation by tumor cells. While two distinct subsets of myeloid cells induce an influx of T cells into the invasive margin via CXCL9/CXCL10, CCL5 is produced by these T cells and stimulates pro-tumoral effects via CCR5. [Cancer Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Targeting Non-Proteolytic Protein Ubiquitination for the Treatment of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma
Researchers showed that the CARD11-MALT1-BCL10 complex includes the E3 ubiquitin ligases cIAP1 and cIAP2, which are essential mediators of B cell receptor-dependent NF-κB activity in the activated B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma. [Cancer Cell] Abstract

Zinc-Induced Polymerization of Killer-Cell Ig-Like Receptor into Filaments Promotes Its Inhibitory Function at Cytotoxic Immunological Synapses
The inhibitory function of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) that bind HLA-C and block activation of human natural killer cells is dependent on zinc. The authors report that zinc induced the assembly of soluble KIR into filamentous polymers, as detected by electron microscopy, which depolymerized after zinc chelation. [Mol Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

OX40+ Regulatory T Cells in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Suppress Effector T Cell Responses and Associate with Metastatic Potential
To investigate reasons for failure of T cells to mount a protective response in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, scientists focused on regulatory T cells as this suppressive population is well represented among the infiltrating lymphocytes. [Clin Cancer Res] Abstract | Full Article

CD4+ and CD8+ TCRβ Repertoires Possess Different Potentials to Generate Extraordinarily High-Avidity T Cells
Researchers showed that the transduction of SIG35α, the public chain-centric HLA-A*02:01(A2)/MART127–35 TCRα hemichain, conferred A2/MART127–35 reactivity to a substantial subset of both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells regardless of their HLA–A2 positivity. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Reduced Number of Transitional and Naive B Cells in Addition to Decreased BAFF Levels in Response to the T Cell Independent Immunogen Pneumovax®23
Researchers analyzed the effect of a T cell independent antigen on the B cell compartment through immunization of healthy individuals with the pneumococcal polysaccharide-based vaccine Pneumovax®23, and subsequent characterization of B cell subpopulations. [PLoS One] Full Article

Differential Effects of the Two Amino Acid Sensing Systems, the GCN2 Kinase and the mTOR Complex 1, on Primary Human Alloreactive CD4+ T-Cells
The effects of general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) kinase activation or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition on human alloreactive CD4+ T-cells were evaluated. The mixed lymphocyte reaction, as a model of alloreactivity, the GCN2 kinase activator, tryptophan, and the mTOR complex 1 inhibitor, rapamycin, were used. [Int J Mol Med] Abstract

A Multi-Laboratory Comparison of Blood Dendritic Cell Populations
The authors validated a backbone of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to delineate monocyte and dendritic cell (DC) populations from peripheral blood. The mAb backbone allowed identification of monocyte and DC subsets using fluorochromes that were compatible with most ‘off the shelf’ or routine flow cytometers. [Clin Transl Immunol] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Liver Immunology and Its Role in Inflammation and Homeostasis
The authors explore the changing perception of inflammation and inflammatory mediators in normal liver homeostasis and propose targeting of liver-specific immune regulation pathways as a therapeutic approach to treat liver disease. [Cell Mol Immunol] Full Article

Synthetic Glycolipid Activators of Natural Killer T Cells as Immunotherapeutic Agents
Investigators discuss the design of synthetic glycolipid activators for invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, their impact on adaptive immune responses and their use to modulate iNKT cell responses to improve immunity against infections and cancer. [Clin Transl Immunol] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.

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SCIENCE NEWS
Ludwig Scientists Share New Findings on Immunotherapy, Drug Resistance and Tumor Evolution
Research conducted by more than 70 Ludwig scientists will be presented in symposiums, plenaries and poster sessions, and Ludwig researchers will participate in several workshops and meet-the-expert sessions over the course of the meeting. [Press release from Ludwig Cancer Research discussing research to be presented at the 2016 American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting, New Orleans] Press Release

Immunovaccine to Present New Pre-Clinical Data
Immunovaccine Inc. announced that new pre-clinical data on DPX™-based cancer vaccines will be presented. [Press release from Immunovaccine Inc. discussing research to be presented at the 2016 American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting, New Orleans] Press Release | Abstract

Premier Biomedical, Inc. Cancer Immunotherapy Research Highlights to Be Presented
Premier Biomedical, Inc. announced additional details regarding the presentation of the results of their cancer immunotherapy research, along with additional research results by their UTEP scientist partners. [Press release from Premier Biomedical, Inc. discussing research to be presented at the 2016 American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting, New Orleans] Press Release | Abstract

Aduro Biotech Chief Scientific Officer to Highlight the Potential of STING Activation in Cancer Immunotherapy
Thomas W. Dubensky, Jr., Ph.D. will highlight Aduro’s landmark first-in-human immunotherapeutic approach in cancer to target the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway. [Press release from Aduro Biotech, Inc. discussing research to be presented at the 2016 American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting, New Orleans] Press Release | Abstract

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Merck and Pfizer Announce First Patient Treated in Phase III Combination Study with Avelumab and INLYTA® in Renal Cell Carcinoma
Merck and Pfizer announced the treatment of the first patient in a Phase III study of avelumab, an investigational fully human anti-PD-L1 IgG1 monoclonal antibody, in an advanced renal cell carcinoma setting. [Pfizer, Inc.] Press Release

UAB Awarded $19.5 Million Grant for New Xenotransplantation Program
The University of Alabama at Birmingham Comprehensive Transplant Institute has been awarded a five-year, $19.5 million grant from biotechnology magnate United Therapeutics Corporation to launch a pioneering UAB Xenotransplantation Program that both groups hope will lead to genetically modified kidney transplants from pig models to humans by 2021. [University of Alabama at Birmingham] Press Release

Type 1 Diabetes Cell Therapy Trial Enrolls First Patient at Sanford
A clinical trial studying the body’s ability to type fight 1 diabetes using cell therapy has used the method on its first participant. “The Sanford Project: T-Rex Study” is a collaborative study between Sanford Health and Caladrius Biosciences, Inc., for adolescents with newly onset type 1 diabetes. [Sanford Health] Press Release

BriaCell Files a Patent Application to Protect Additional Cancer Vaccines with Genetic Features Thought to Promote Strong Anti-Tumor Activity
BriaCell Therapeutics Corp. announced that it has filed a provisional patent application with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office outlining certain features thought to improve clinical efficacy of whole-cell cancer vaccines. [BriaCell Therapeutics Corp.] Press Release

FDA Grants Priority Review for Genentech’s Cancer Immunotherapy Atezolizumab in Specific Type of Lung Cancer
Genentech announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted the company’s Biologics License Application and granted Priority Review for atezolizumab for the treatment of people with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer whose disease expresses the protein PD-L1 (programmed death ligand-1) and who have progressed on or after platinum-containing chemotherapy. [Genentech, Inc.] Press Release

Therapeutic Solutions International’s Subsidiary MolecuVax, Inc. to Initiate Cancer Immunotherapy Clinical Trial Aimed at Eradicating Cancer Stem Cells Using MVAX-001
Therapeutic Solutions International, Inc. announced the signing of an agreement between its subsidiary, MolecuVax, Inc., and the Pan Am Cancer Treatment Center covering production and clinical implementation of a novel cancer immunotherapy based around MVAX’s proprietary Brother of the Regulator of Imprinted Sites peptide/exosome technology. [Therapeutic Solutions International, Inc.] Press Release

FDA Approves Celltrion’s INFLECTRA™ (Biosimilar Infliximab) for All Indications
Celltrion announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved INFLECTRA™ for all indications of the reference product, Janssen Biotech Inc.’s Remicade® (infliximab). [Celltrion, Inc.] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Changing the Face of Modern Medicine: Stem Cells & Gene Therapy
October 18-21, 2016
Florence, Italy

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Scientist – Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

NEW Engineering Project Lead (Cytonome)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Human Immune System-Microbiota Crosstalk (Karolinska Institutet)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (University of Wisconsin – Madison)

Masters Student – Immunology (Trinity College Dublin)

Postdoctoral Position or Research Scientist – Mucosal Immunology (Qu Biologics)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard)

Postdoctoral Researchers – Tumor Immunology and Cancer Immunotherapy (University of California, Los Angeles)

Tenure-Track Position – Immunology (Massachusetts General Hospital)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Autoimmune, Inflammatory and Demyelinating Diseases (Queen’s University Belfast)


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