Volume 4.12 | Mar 29

Human Immunology News 4.12 March 29, 2016
Human Immunology News
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‘Clogged-Up’ Immune Cells Help Explain Smoking Risk for TB
Smoking increases an individual’s risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) – and makes the infection worse – because it causes vital immune cells to become clogged up, slowing their movement and impeding their ability to fight infection. [Press release from the University of Cambridge discussing publication in Cell]
Press Release | Full Article | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Restoring Oxidant Signaling Suppresses Proarthritogenic T Cell Effector Functions in Rheumatoid Arthritis
In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), CD4+ T cells hyperproliferate during clonal expansion, differentiating into cytokine-producing effector cells that contribute to disease pathology. In contrast to healthy T cells, naïve RA T cells had a defect in glycolytic flux due to the up-regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

Arginase-1–Dependent Promotion of TH17 Differentiation and Disease Progression by MDSCs in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus showed a significant increase in HLADRCD11b+CD33+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), including both CD14+CD66b monocytic and CD14CD66b+ granulocytic MDSCs, in the peripheral blood compared to healthy controls. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract

Human Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Form Dysfunctional Immune Synapses with B Cells Characterized by Non-Polarized Lytic Granule Release
Investigators explored the underlying basis for cytotoxic T cell (CTL) suppression in the context of B cell malignancies. They document that human B cells have an intrinsic ability to resist killing by freshly isolated CTLs, but are susceptible to lysis by IL-2 activated CTL blasts and CTLs isolated from immunotherapy-treated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

NAP-2 Secreted by Human NK Cells Can Stimulate Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell Recruitment
Strategies for improved homing of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to a place of injury are being sought and it has been shown that natural killer (NK) cells can stimulate MSC recruitment. Researchers studied the chemokines behind this recruitment. [Stem Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Aging Converts Innate B1a Cells into Potent CD8+ T Cell Inducers
Investigators report that 4-1BBL+ MHC class-IHi CD86Hi B cells, termed 4BL cells, are activated murine and possibly human B1a cells. The activation is mediated by aging human monocytes and murine peritoneal macrophages. [J Immunol] Abstract

Increased Expression with Differential Subcellular Location of Cytidine Deaminase APOBEC3G in Human CD4+ T-Cell Activation and Dendritic Cell Maturation
Researchers found that APOBEC3G mRNA and protein expression is very low in resting CD4+ T-cells and immature dendritic cells (DCs), but increases strongly following T-cell activation and DCs maturation. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer-Induced Immunosuppression by Increased Human Regulatory T Cells via Foxp3 Promoter Demethylation
Scientists found a higher percentage of CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the peripheral blood of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared with healthy donors. NSCLC patients showed demethylation of eight CpG sites within the forkhead box protein P3 (Foxp3) promoter with methylation ratios negatively correlated with CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T levels. [Cancer Immunol Immunother] Full Article

Impact of Persistent Cytomegalovirus Infection on Dynamic Changes in Human Immune System Profile
The authors report the variation of blood cell count along with anti-human cytomegalovirus IgG and T cell responses to pp-65 and IE-1 antigens, that occurred after an interval of five years in a cohort of 25 seropositive healthy adults. [PLoS One] Full Article

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Resolution of Inflammation: A New Therapeutic Frontier
The authors discuss the state of the art in the biology of resolution of inflammation, highlighting the opportunities and challenges for translational research in this field. [Nat Rev Drug Discov] Abstract

Regulatory and Effector Functions of Gamma-Delta (γδ) T Cells and Their Therapeutic Potential in Adoptive Cellular Therapy for Cancer
Investigators discuss the effector and regulatory function of γδ T cells in the tumor microenvironment with special emphasis on the potential for their use in adoptive cellular immunotherapy. [Int J Cancer] Abstract

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TESARO and MD Anderson Announce Immuno-Oncology Collaboration and Exclusive License
TESARO, Inc. and the Institute for Applied Cancer Science at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center announced an exclusive collaboration to discover and develop small molecule product candidates against undisclosed immuno-oncology targets. [TESARO, Inc.] Press Release

UCLA Stem Cell Researcher Receives $7.6 Million Grant
With new funding awarded by the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Lili Yang hopes to engineer the body’s immune system to give it the ability to attack and kill cancerous cells, while leaving healthy tissues unharmed. [UCLA] Press Release

Argos Therapeutics Announces Initiation of a Phase II Clinical Trial of AGS-003 for the Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in Combination with Standard-of-Care Chemotherapy
Argos Therapeutics, Inc. announced the initiation of an investigator-sponsored Phase II clinical trial of AGS-003 in combination with standard platinum-doublet chemotherapy with or without radiation in patients with newly diagnosed Stage 3 non-small cell lung cancer. [Argos Therapeutics, Inc.] Press Release

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NEW Immunogenicity 2016
June 13-14, 2016
London, United Kingdom

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NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (University of Wisconsin – Madison)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Masters Student – Immunology (Trinity College Dublin)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Cellectis Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position or Research Scientist – Mucosal Immunology (Qu Biologics)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard)

Postdoctoral Researchers – Tumor Immunology and Cancer Immunotherapy (University of California, Los Angeles)

Tenure-Track Position – Immunology (Massachusetts General Hospital)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Autoimmune, Inflammatory and Demyelinating Diseases (Queen’s University Belfast)

PhD Studentship – Regulation of Diabetes-Induced Inflammation (Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen)

Senior/Principal Scientist – Antibody and Small Molecule Entities in Cellular Systems (UCB Pharma Ltd.)

Faculty Positions – Immunology (University of Texas Health Science Center)

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