Volume 4.07 | Feb 23

Human Immunology News 4.07 February 23, 2016
Human Immunology News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Crafting a Better T Cell for Immunotherapy
T-cell therapy, a form of immunotherapy that uses a patient’s own immune cells to attack their cancer, has been making waves recently. A group of scientists has devised a new approach that could both speed up and bump up the effectiveness of this process, using a special, small protein tag that can be used to purify and track the T cells once they have been engineered in the laboratory. [Press release from Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center discussing online publication in Nature Biotechnology] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
The Proteomic Landscape of Human Ex Vivo Regulatory and Conventional T Cells Reveals Specific Metabolic Requirements
Researchers report a comprehensive comparative analysis between ex vivo human regulatory T and conventional T cells that comprises analyses of the proteomic networks in subcellular compartments. [Immunity] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Distinct Signaling of Coreceptors Regulates Specific Metabolism Pathways and Impacts Memory Development in CAR T Cells
Scientists report the influence of signaling domains of coreceptors CD28 and 4-1BB on the metabolic characteristics of human chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. Inclusion of 4-1BB in the CAR architecture promoted the outgrowth of CD8+ central memory T cells that had significantly enhanced respiratory capacity, increased fatty acid oxidation and enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis. [Immunity]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Circulating Memory T Follicular Helper Subsets, Tfh2 and Tfh17, Participate in the Pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré Syndrome
Scientists found that the absolute counts of total memory follicular helper CD4+T (Tfh) cells were significantly increased in acute motor axonal neuropathy, while no significant difference in acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy compared with healthy controls. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Comparative Analysis of Protocols to Induce Human CD4+Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells by Combinations of IL-2, TGF-beta, Retinoic Acid, Rapamycin and Butyrate
Investigators comprehensively compared different established and define novel protocols of human inducing regulatory T cells generation using TGF-β in combination with other compounds. [PLoS One] Full Article

The Cytokine Profile of Human NKT Cells and PBMCs Is Dependent on Donor Sex and Stimulus
Scientists analyzed sex-specific differences in peripheral blood natural killer T (NKTs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from men and women and determined the frequencies of NKT cells and their subpopulations and the levels of cytokine production following stimulation with the NKT cell ligands α-Galactosylceramide and Entamoeba histolytica lipopeptidephosphoglycan. [Med Microbiol Immunol] Full Article

DNA Demethylation of the TIM-3 Promoter Is Critical for Its Stable Expression on T Cells
By analyzing the sequences of T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (TIM-3) promoter regions in human and mouse, investigators identified a CpG island within the TIM-3 promoter and demonstrated that the promoter activity was controlled by DNA methylation. [Genes Immun] Abstract

Three Cases of Pigmented Cosmetic Dermatitis-Like Eruptions Associated with Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome or Anti-SSA Antibody
Pigmented cosmetic dermatitis-like pigmentation was reported in three of 27 patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Researchers describe three cases of such eruptions associated with primary Sjogren’s syndrome or anti-SSA antibody and possible associations with specific types of human leukocyte antigen and infiltrating lymphocytes. [J Dermatol] Abstract

Novel Fusion Proteins for the Antigen-Specific Staining and Elimination of B Cell Receptor-Positive Cell Populations Demonstrated by a Tetanus Toxoid Fragment C (TTC) Model Antigen
In an earlier study the authors developed a unique strategy allowing us to specifically eliminate antigen-specific murine B cells via their distinct B cell receptors using a new class of fusion proteins. They elaborated their idea to demonstrate the feasibility of specifically addressing and eliminating human memory B cells. [BMC Biotechnol] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Immunogenic versus Tolerogenic Phagocytosis during Anticancer Therapy: Mechanisms and Clinical Translation
The authors discuss the pivotal role of phagocytosis in regulating responses to anticancer therapy. They give particular attention to the role of phagocytosis following treatment with immunogenic or immune-checkpoint therapies, the clinical prognostic and predictive significance of phagocytic signals for cancer patients and the therapeutic strategies that can be employed for direct targeting of phagocytic determinants. [Cell Death Differ] Abstract

Natural Killer Cell Adoptive Immunotherapy: Coming of Age
The authors discuss protocols for isolation, expansion, and in vitro propagation of large quantities of functional natural killer cells that meet the criteria for clinical applications. [Clin Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Neon Therapeutics Enters Collaborative Research Agreement with the Netherlands Cancer Institute
Neon Therapeutics announced that the company has entered into a collaborative research agreement with the Netherlands Cancer Institute’s Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital and the Amsterdam Biotherapeutics Unit. Under the terms of the agreement, Neon Therapeutics and NKI will combine complementary capabilities to develop personalized T cell therapeutics. [NEON Therapeutics] Press Release

AVROBIO Inc. Launches to Develop Novel, Clinical-Stage Cell and Gene Therapies Targeting Immuno-Oncology and Rare Diseases
AVROBIO announced its launch plans. The company’s priority is to accelerate development of two novel cell and gene therapies. Phase I programs will be in the clinic by early to mid-2016 in both acute myeloid leukemia and Fabry disease. [AVROBIO Inc.] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 3rd Immunotherapy of Cancer Conference (ITOC)
March 21-23, 2016
Munich, Germany

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Autoimmune, Inflammatory and Demyelinating Diseases (Queen’s University Belfast)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

PhD Studentship – Regulation of Diabetes-Induced Inflammation (Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen)

Research Fellow – Systems Immunology (University of Southampton)

Senior/Principal Scientist – Antibody and Small Molecule Entities in Cellular Systems (UCB Pharma Ltd.)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Immunology (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center)

Faculty Positions – Immunology (University of Texas Health Science Center)

Professor – Human Immune-Defects (University of Bonn)

Postdoctoral Positions – Human Systems Immunology (University College Cork)

Postdoctoral Positions – Cancer Bioengineering and Biology (University of Minnesota)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Indiana University School of Medicine)


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