Volume 4.06 | Feb 16

Human Immunology News 4.06 February 16, 2016
Human Immunology News
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New Subgroups of ILC Immune Cells Discovered through Single-Cell RNA Sequencing
By analyzing the gene expression in individual tonsil cells, scientists found three previously unknown subgroups of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), and revealed more about how these cells function in the human body. [Press release from Karolinska Institutet discussing online prepublication in Nature Immunology]
Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
The Cellular Composition of the Human Immune System Is Shaped by Age and Cohabitation
Researchers used a ‘systems-level’ approach to establish a resource of cellular immune profiles of 670 healthy individuals. They report a high level of interindividual variation, with low longitudinal variation, at the level of cellular subset composition of the immune system. [Nat Immunol] Abstract | Press Release | Video

Endogenous Dendritic Cells from the Tumor Microenvironment Support T-ALL Growth via IGF1R Activation
Systematic evaluation of the functional capacity of tumor-associated stromal cells revealed that myeloid cells, primarily dendritic cells, are necessary and sufficient to support T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) survival ex vivo. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

Cellular Softening Mediates Leukocyte Demargination and Trafficking, Thereby Increasing Clinical Blood Counts
Scientists showed that alterations in granulocyte mechanical properties are the driving force behind glucocorticoid- and catecholamine-induced demargination. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

Clostridium butyricum in Combination with Specific Immunotherapy Converts Antigen-Specific B Cells to Regulatory B Cells in Asthmatic Patients
Researchers aimed to modulate antigen specific B cell property by the administration of C. butyrate in combination with antigen specific immunotherapy. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Human Monocytes Undergo Functional Re-Programming during Differentiation to Dendritic Cell Mediated by Human Extravillous Trophoblasts
Investigators showed that human extravillous trophoblasts redirect the monocyte-to-DC transition and induce regulatory dendritic cells (DCs). DCs differentiated from blood monocytes in the presence of human extravillous trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo displayed a DC-SIGN+CD14+CD1a phenotype, similar with decidual DCs. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Cellular Adjuvant Properties, Direct Cytotoxicity of Re-Differentiated Vα24 Invariant NKT-like Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Reduced invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell numbers and function have been observed in many patients with cancer. To recover these numbers, investigators reprogrammed human iNKT cells to pluripotency and then re-differentiated them into regenerated iNKT cells in vitro through an IL-7/IL-15-based optimized cytokine combination. [Stem Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Human Mast Cells Co-Stimulate T Cells through a CD28-Independent Interaction
The authors studied the T cell-stimulatory potential of human mast cells. Peripheral blood-derived mast cells were generated and co-cultured with isolated CD4+ T cells. In the presence of T-cell receptor triggering using anti-CD3, mast cells promoted strong proliferation of T cells, which was 2–5 fold stronger than the “T-cell promoting capacity” of monocytes. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

Characterization of Regulatory T-Cell Markers in CD4+ T Cells of the Upper Airway Mucosa
Investigators performed a detailed analysis of CD4+ T regulatory cells in the human upper airway mucosa under non-inflammatory conditions, and found that 10% of all CD4+ T cells expressed the transcription factor FOXP3 and the memory marker CD45RO, as well as high levels of CTLA-4. [PLoS One] Full Article

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Autoimmune Diseases — Connecting Risk Alleles with Molecular Traits of the Immune System
To identify the in vivo and ex vivo immunophenotypes that are affected by risk variants, key cell types and cell states that are implicated in autoimmune diseases will need to be defined. [Nat Rev Genet] Abstract

Harnessing the Plasticity of CD4+ T Cells to Treat Immune-Mediated Disease
The authors review CD4+ T cell plasticity by examining the molecular mechanisms that regulate it — from the extracellular cues that initiate and drive cells towards varying phenotypes, to the cytosolic signaling cascades that decipher these cues and transmit them into the cell and to the nucleus, where these signals imprint specific gene expression programs. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.
Stan Riddell, Fred Hutch Cancer Immunotherapy Innovator, to Present at AAAS Annual Meeting
Dr. Stanley Riddell, an immunotherapy researcher and oncologist, presented an update on new adoptive T-cell strategies for cancer. [Press release from Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (EurekAlert!) discussing research presented at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Annual Meeting, Washington, DC] Press Release

Progress in Fighting Cancer and Infections with T Cell Therapy
Scientists have worked on providing cell products that will upon transfer to patients expand to large numbers and stay active for a long time, potentially life-long. They identified a subset of T cells with high regenerative potential, where even low numbers of transferred cells – in the extreme a single T cell – can confer therapeutic immune responses. [Press release from the Technical University of Munich discussing research presented at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Annual Meeting, Washington, DC] Press Release

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Government of Canada Invests in Research Commercialization
The Centre for Commercialization of Cancer Immunotherapy will receive funding of $15 million over five years to develop, translate and commercialize cancer immunotherapy. [Networks of Centres of Excellence of Canada] Press Release

ImmunoCellular Therapeutics Enters into Research Agreement with Stanford University to Advance Stem-to-T-Cell Program
ImmunoCellular Therapeutics, Ltd. announced it has entered into an agreement with Stanford University for an option to evaluate and license intellectual property related to the identification of T cell receptors developed in the laboratory of Prof. Mark Davis at Stanford University School of Medicine. [ImmunoCellular Therapeutics, Ltd.] Press Release

Collaboration Led by ImmunID Awarded Innovate UK Grant to Advance Program on Prediction of Response to Cancer Immunotherapy Using ImmunTraCkeR®
ImmunID announced it has been awarded Small Business Research Initiative funding by Innovate UK to advance its ImmunTraCkeR® assay for therapeutic response prediction. [ImmunID] Press Release

Medigene Secures Additional Viral Vector Production Capacities for Its Clinical TCR Studies
Medigene AG has signed an agreement with the contract manufacturer EUFETS GmbH for the production and delivery of viral vectors. These viral vectors are required for Medigene’s upcoming clinical T-cell receptor (TCR) studies. [Medigene AG] Press Release
American College of Rheumatology Encourages Safe Adoption of Biosimilars during FDA Public Hearing on CT-P13, a Proposed Biosimilar for Infliximab (Remicade)
During a public meeting held by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)’s Arthritis Advisory Committee to review the license application of CT-P13, the American College of Rheumatology provided recommendations for policy guidelines to implement as the committee decides whether to license additional biosimilars for sale in the U.S. [American College of Rheumatology] Editorial

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW AACR Annual Meeting 2016
April 16-20, 2016
New Orleans, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
NEW PhD Studentship – Regulation of Diabetes-Induced Inflammation (Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Fellow – Systems Immunology (University of Southampton)

Senior/Principal Scientist – Antibody and Small Molecule Entities in Cellular Systems (UCB Pharma Ltd.)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Immunology (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center)

Faculty Positions – Immunology (University of Texas Health Science Center)

Professor – Human Immune-Defects (University of Bonn)

Postdoctoral Positions – Human Systems Immunology (University College Cork)

Postdoctoral Positions – Cancer Bioengineering and Biology (University of Minnesota)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Indiana University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cell Therapy (Toronto Western Hospital)

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