Volume 4.04 | Feb 2

Human Immunology News 4.04 February 2, 2016
Human Immunology News
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Tricked-Out Immune Cells Could Attack Cancer, Spare Healthy Cells
Scientists have created a new class of highly customizable biological sensors that can be used to form “logic gates” inside cells of the immune system, giving these cells the capability to home in on and kill a wide range of cancer cells while preventing them from attacking normal tissue. [Press release from the University of California, San Francisco discussing online prepublication in Cell]
Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Ibrutinib Enhances Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Engraftment and Efficacy in Leukemia
To evaluate the effect of ibrutinib treatment on the T-cell compartment in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) as it relates to chimeric antigen receptor T-cell generation, researchers examined the phenotype and function of T-cells in a cohort of CLL patients during their course of treatment with ibrutinib. [Blood] Abstract

Expression of CD39 on Activated T Cells Impairs Their Survival in Older Individuals
To identify age-associated defects in memory cell formation, scientists profiled activated CD4+ T cells and found an increased induction of the ATPase CD39 with age. CD39+ CD4+ T cells resembled effector T cells with signs of metabolic stress and high susceptibility to undergo apoptosis. [Cell Rep]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Frequent CTLA4-CD28 Gene Fusion in Diverse Types of T Cell Lymphoma
Researchers identified a fusion between the two genes from partial gene duplication in a case of angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma by RNA sequencing. The fusion gene consists of the extracellular domain of CTLA4 and the cytoplasmic region of CD28, likely capable of transforming inhibitory signals into stimulatory signals for T cell activation. [Haematologica] Abstract | Full Article

CRISPR-Cas9 Mediated Efficient PD-1 Disruption on Human Primary T Cells from Cancer Patients
The authors described for the first time a non-viral mediated approach to reprogram primary human T cells by disruption of programmed death-1 (PD-1). The disruption of inhibitory checkpoint gene PD-1 resulted in significant reduction of PD-1 expression but did not affect the viability of primary human T cells during the prolonged in vitro culture. [Sci Rep] Full Article

A Novel Method for Evaluating Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity by Flow Cytometry Using Cryopreserved Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
Researchers established a novel method for evaluating cytotoxicity, which involves the detection and quantification of dead target cells using flow cytometry. With the new approach, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity activity was more reproducibly, sensitively, and specifically detectable, not only in freshly isolated but also in frozen human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, than with the calcein-AM release assay. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Lymphocyte Depletion and Repopulation after Chemotherapy for Primary Breast Cancer
Researchers used flow-cytometry to assess circulating lymphocyte levels and phenotypes in 88 primary breast cancer patients before chemotherapy and at time-points from two weeks to nine months after chemotherapy completion. Levels of B, T and NK cells were significantly reduced two weeks after chemotherapy. [Breast Cancer Res] Full Article | Press Release

X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein Mediates Tumor Cell Resistance to Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity
Scientists hypothesized that high expression of anti-apoptotic molecules in tumors would render them resistant to antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). They demonstrated that the most potent caspase inhibitor, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, overexpressed in inflammatory breast cancer, drives resistance to ADCC mediated by cetuximab and trastuzumab. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

New Insights into the Phenotype of Human Dendritic Cell Populations
Investigators summarized the reactivity of different monoclonal antibodies to 68 different cell-surface molecules expressed by human myeloid and dendritic cell populations. [Clin Transl Immunol] Full Article

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Targeted Approaches to Induce Immune Tolerance for Pompe Disease Therapy
Investigators highlight the advances in therapies as well as the improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the humoral immune response with emphasis on methods employed to overcome responses associated with enzyme and gene therapies for Pompe disease. [Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.

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Adaptimmune and GSK Expand Strategic Immunotherapy Collaboration
Adaptimmune Therapeutics plc and GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK) announced that the companies have expanded the terms of their strategic collaboration agreement to accelerate Adaptimmune’s lead clinical cancer program, an affinity enhanced T-cell immunotherapy (GSK3377794) targeting NY-ESO-1, toward pivotal trials in synovial sarcoma. [Adaptimmune Therapeutics plc] Press Release

Bristol-Myers Squibb and AbbVie Receive Positive CHMP Opinion for Investigational Antibody, Empliciti (Elotuzumab), for the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma in Patients Who Have Received at Least One Prior Therapy
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company and AbbVie announced that the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency has adopted a positive opinion recommending that Empliciti, an investigational immunostimulatory antibody, be granted approval for the treatment of multiple myeloma as combination therapy with Revlimid® and dexamethasone in patients who have received at least one prior therapy. [Bristol-Myers Squibb Company] Press Release

Targovax Submits a Study of Its Adenovirus Based Immune Therapy ONCOS-102 to the Regulatory Authorities in Spain
Targovax has submitted a study protocol to the regulatory authorities in Spain to assess its ONCOS-102 product in combination with chemotherapy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma, a rare type of lung cancer associated with exposure to asbestos. [Targovax ASA] Press Release

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White House Proposes $1 Billion for Cancer ‘Moonshot’
The White House will propose spending close to $1 billion over the next two years on a “moonshot” to fight cancer. President Barack Obama will ask Congress for $755 million for fiscal year 2017, and will try to spend $195 million this year to get things started. [NBC News] Editorial

MD Anderson Joins Nation’s Cancer Centers in Endorsement of HPV Vaccination for Cancer Prevention
In response to low national vaccination rates for the human papillomavirus (HPV), The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center has joined with the 68 other National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers in issuing a statement calling for increased HPV vaccination for the prevention of cancer. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center] Press Release | Statement

Worries about Brain Damage in Infants Linked to Zika Leads WHO to Declare a Public Health Emergency
Increasingly strong links between the spread of Zika virus and microcephaly in newborns led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. [ScienceInsider] Editorial

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Advanced Cell Therapy Symposium
March 14-15, 2016
London, United Kingdom

NEW International Conference on Human & Translational Immunology
September 16-21, 2016
Rhodes, Greece

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
NEW Postdoctoral Fellowship – Immunology (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center)

NEW Faculty Positions – Immunology (University of Texas Health Science Center)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Professor – Human Immune-Defects (University of Bonn)

Postdoctoral Positions – Human Systems Immunology (University College Cork)

Postdoctoral Positions – Cancer Bioengineering and Biology (University of Minnesota)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Indiana University School of Medicine)

Research Technician – CAR T Cell Therapy (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cell Therapy (Toronto Western Hospital)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Clinical Immunology (Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason)

Postdoctoral Positions – Hantavirus and Inflammation Research (Karolinska Institutet)

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