Volume 4.02 | Jan 19

Human Immunology News 4.02 January 19, 2016
Human Immunology News
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California Institute for Biomedical Research (Calibr) Releases a Pair of Research Articles Describing a Novel Switchable CAR-T Cell Platform to Treat Cancer
Scientists published two papers describing the development of a “switchable” chimeric antigen receptor (sCAR)-T cell system that provides control over the activation, targeting, and anti-tumor activity of CAR-T cells. [Press release from Calibr (PR Newswire Association LLC) discussing online prepublications in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences] Press Release | Abstract 1 | Full Article 1 | Abstract 2 | Full Article 2
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Cord Blood Monocyte–Derived Inflammatory Cytokines Suppress IL-2 and Induce Nonclassic “TH2-Type” Immunity Associated with Development of Food Allergy
Scientists found that in infants who developed food allergy, cord blood displayed a higher monocyte to CD4+ T cell ratio and a lower proportion of natural regulatory T cell in relation to duration of labor. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

Inhibition of Diacylglycerol Kinase α Restores Restimulation-Induced Cell Death and Reduces Immunopathology in XLP-1
Researchers showed that down-regulation of diacylglycerol kinase α activity in signaling lymphocytic activation molecule–associated protein-deficient T cells restores diacylglycerol signaling at the immune synapse and rescues restimulation-induced cell death via induction of the proapoptotic proteins NUR77 and NOR1. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

Neutrophil-Derived Proteases Escalate Inflammation through Activation of IL-36 Family Cytokines
Scientists showed that IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ are activated differentially by the neutrophil granule-derived proteases cathepsin G, elastase, and proteinase-3, increasing their biological activity ~500-fold. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Cytotoxic Polyfunctionality Maturation of Cytomegalovirus-pp65-Specific CD4+and CD8+ T-Cell Responses in Older Adults Positively Correlates with Response Size
Researchers examined the in vitro cytomegalovirus-pp65-reactive T-cell response by comprehensively studying five effector functions (i.e., interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, perforin, and CD107a expression) in 76 seropositive individuals aged 70 years or older. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Pivotal Role for CD16+ Monocytes in Immune Surveillance of the Central Nervous System
Researchers examined the frequency and phenotype of monocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain biopsy material derived from multiple sclerosis patients and controls. [J Immunol] Abstract

IL-6 Down-Regulates HLA Class II Expression and IL-12 Production of Human Dendritic Cells to Impair Activation of Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells
The authors focused on the role of interleukin (IL)-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling cascade in immune regulation by human dendritic cells (DCs). IL-6-conditioned monocyte-derived DCs impaired the presenting ability of cancer-related antigens. [Cancer Immunol Immunother] Abstract

The CII-Specific Autoimmune T-Cell Response Develops in the Presence of FTY720 but Is Regulated by Enhanced Treg Cells that Inhibit the Development of Autoimmune Arthritis
Scientists analyzed the effect of fingolimod (FTY720) on the autoimmune T- and B-cell response in autoimmune arthritis and studied the mechanisms by which it alters the function of T cells. [Arthritis Res Ther] Full Article

The Multiple Sclerosis Susceptibility Genes TAGAP and IL2RA Are Regulated by Vitamin D in CD4+ T Cells
In CD4+ T cells, investigators analyzed in vitro vitamin D responsiveness of genes that contain a multiple sclerosis-associated single-nucleotide polymorphism and with one or more vitamin D response elements in their regulatory regions. They identified IL2RA and TAGAP as novel vitamin D target genes. [Genes Immun] Full Article

Human Regulatory T Cells Suppress Proliferation of B Lymphoma Cells
Allogeneic polyclonal CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD4+CD2+CD127lo Tregs expanded in vitro in the presence of rapamycin and low dose IL-2 suppressed proliferation of 11 out of 12 established lymphoma B‑cell lines. [Leuk Lymphoma] Abstract

Differentiation of Human Monocytes and Derived Subsets of Macrophages and Dendritic Cells by the HLDA10 Monoclonal Antibody Panel
Blood monocytes critically contribute to tissue macrophage and dendritic cell (DC) pools upon inflammation. To better understand the relationship between these populations and their phenotype, investigators isolated and differentiated human blood CD14+ monocytes in vitro into immature and mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells as well as into seven different monocyte-derived macrophage subsets. [Clin Transl Immunol] Full Article

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MAIT Cells in Autoimmunity, Immune Mediated Diseases and Airways Disease
The author reviews observations from clinical studies and animal models of autoimmune and immune mediated diseases including the roles of mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease and airways diseases. [Immunology] Abstract | Full Article

Cytokine-Defined B Cell Responses as Therapeutic Targets in Multiple Sclerosis
Investigators focus on mechanisms by which cytokine-defined B cells contribute to the peripheral immune cascades that are thought to underlie multiple sclerosis relapses, and the impact of B cell-directed therapies on these mechanisms. [Front Immunol] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the Human Immunology research field.
Sanofi Pasteur Provides Key Support to the Human Vaccines Project
Sanofi Pasteur has signed an agreement with the Human Vaccines Project Inc. to partially fund the non-profit, public-private partnership convening leading academic researchers and industrial partners to solve the primary problems impeding vaccine/immunotherapy development by “decoding” the human immune system. [Sanofi Pasteur SA] Press Release

First Combination Trial with MGN1703 and a Checkpoint Inhibitor in Collaboration with MD Anderson
MOLOGEN AG announced that it has entered into a collaboration agreement with The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. The agreement relates to a Phase I trial with MOLOGEN’s immunomodulator lefitolimod (MGN1703) in combination with the immunotherapy Yervoy® (ipilimumab) in patients with advanced solid malignancies. [MOLOGEN AG] Press Release

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NEW ICSCRM 2016: 18th International Conference on Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine
February 25-26, 2016
London, United Kingdom

NEW Cancer Stem Cell Conference 2016
September 20-23, 2016
Cleveland, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the Human Immunology community.
NEW Postdoctoral Positions – Cancer Bioengineering and Biology (University of Minnesota)

NEW Postdoctoral Scientists – Breast Cancer Biology & Oncoimmunology (Vall D’Hebron Institute of Oncology)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Indiana University School of Medicine)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Senior Immunologist (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Research Technician – CAR T Cell Therapy (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cell Therapy (Toronto Western Hospital)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Clinical Immunology (Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason)

Postdoctoral Positions – Hantavirus and Inflammation Research (Karolinska Institutet)

Postdoctoral Position – Quantitative Proteomics, Phosphoproteomics and Immune-Cell Signaling (University of Southern Denmark)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Immunotherapy (Inserm)

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