Volume 4.01 | Jan 12

Human Immunology News 4.01 January 12, 2016
Human Immunology News
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Early Memory Phenotypes Drive T Cell Proliferation in Patients with Pediatric Malignancies
Researchers investigated T cell expansion potential and memory phenotype during chemotherapy in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). They found that patients with T cell populations enriched for early lineage cells expanded better in vitro and that patients with ALL had higher numbers of these cells with a corresponding enhancement in expansion as compared to cells from patients with NHL. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Comprehensive RNAi-Based Screening of Human and Mouse TLR Pathways Identifies Species-Specific Preferences in Signaling Protein Use
To systematically determine the roles of proteins in canonical Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways, scientists conducted an RNA interference (RNAi)–based screen in human and mouse macrophages. They observed a pattern of conserved signaling module dependencies across species, but found notable species-specific requirements at the level of individual proteins. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract

The Transcriptional Regulator Network of Human Inflammatory Macrophages Is Defined by Open Chromatin
Investigators assessed four histone modifications during human macrophage activation and integrate this information with the gene expression data from 28 different macrophage activation conditions in combination with GM-CSF. [Cell Res] Full Article

Endogenous TRIM5α Function Is Regulated by SUMOylation and Nuclear Sequestration for Efficient Innate Sensing in Dendritic Cells
Researchers showed that dendritic cells derived from human and non-human primate species lack efficient TRIM5α-mediated retroviral restriction. Nuclear sequestration of TRIM5α allowed potent induction of type I interferon responses during infection, mediated by sensing of reverse transcribed DNA by cGAS. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Characterization of the Human Immune Cell Network at the Gingival Barrier
Investigators performed a detailed characterization of the immune cell subsets of the oral cavity in a large cohort of healthy subjects. They found a predominance of T cells, minimal B cells, a large presence of granulocytes/neutrophils, a sophisticated network of professional antigen-presenting cells, and a small population of innate lymphoid cells policing the gingival barrier. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Rhinovirus Inhibits IL-17A and the Downstream Immune Responses in Allergic Asthma
Scientists found that asthmatic children with a rhinovirus infection in their upper airways have upregulated mRNA levels of the antiviral cytokine interferon type I and the transcription factor T-box 21 and reduced levels of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) protein in their peripheral blood mononuclear cells. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Human Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma–Associated Semaphorin 4D Induces Expansion of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells
Investigators examined the role of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)–secreted Semaphorin 4D on myeloid cell differentiation. CD33+ cells cultured in HNSCC cell line–derived conditioned medium differentiated into myeloid derived suppressor cells. [J Immunol] Abstract | Full Article

CD4+FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells Exhibit Impaired Ability to Suppress Effector T Cell Proliferation in Patients with Turner Syndrome
Researchers investigated whether the frequency, phenotype, and suppressive function of CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells are altered in young Turner syndrome patients with the 45,X karyotype compared to age-matched controls. [PLoS One] Full Article

Modulation of Cytokine Secretion Allows CD4 T Cells Secreting IL-10 and IL-17 to Simultaneously Participate in Maintaining Tolerance and Immunity
Scientists combined ex vivo analysis of CD4 T cells producing IL-10 or/and IL-17 with assessment of clonal populations isolated ex vivo using a cytokine catch assay. They found that circulating CD4 T cells secreting IL-10 or/and IL-17 ex vivo include both conventional FOXP3 CD4 T cells and FOXP3+ Helios Treg. [PLoS One] Full Article

Generation of Regulatory Dendritic Cells after Treatment with Paeoniflorin
Scientists demonstrated that paeoniflorin can induce the production of regulatory dendritic cells from human peripheral blood monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide but not from mature dendritic cells, thereby demonstrating the potential of paeoniflorin as a specific immunosuppressive drug with fewer complications and side effects. [Immunol Res] Abstract

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The Immune System and Cancer Evasion Strategies: Therapeutic Concepts
Investigators review the current understanding of cancer immunology in general, including immune surveillance and immunoediting, with a detailed look at immune cells, immune checkpoints and regulators, sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins and other mechanisms. [J Intern Med] Full Article

Rationale for Anti-CD137 Cancer Immunotherapy
The authors discuss various CD137-targeted immunotherapeutics that have reached clinical development, with a focus on recent advances and novel modalities such as CD137 chimeric antigen receptors and CD137 bispecific antibodies. [Eur J Cancer] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the Human Immunology research field.

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SELLAS Life Sciences Announces Preliminary Positive WT1 Cancer Vaccine Clinical Results in Multiple Myeloma Patients
SELLAS Life Sciences Group reported positive results from the company’s Phase I/II clinical study of its WT1 cancer vaccine in patients with multiple myeloma following autologous stem cell transplantation. [Press release from SELLAS Life Sciences Group discussing research presented at the 34th Annual J.P. Morgan Healthcare Conference, San Francisco] Press Release

MedGenome to Present on OncoPept – A Point Solution in Cancer Immunotherapy
MedGenome will present results from their Head & Neck cancer study in which published genomics data from over 400 Head & Neck cancer samples have been analyzed to identify potential vaccine candidates using MedGenome’s proprietary OncoPept platform. [Press release from MedGenome Inc. (PR Newswire Association LLC) discussing research to be presented at the Novel Immunotherapeutics Summit 2016, San Diego] Press Release

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Historic National Coalition Formed to Accelerate Next Generation Immunotherapy in Cancer
Leaders from large pharma including Celgene and Amgen, biotech including NantWorks, NantKwest, Etubics, Altor Bioscience, and Precision Biologics, major academic cancer centers and community oncologists announced the launch of The National Immunotherapy Coalition, a historic alliance—in collaboration with Independence Blue Cross—with a singular focus: accelerating the potential of combination immunotherapies as the next generation standard of care in patients with cancer. [Business Wire] Press Release

Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, Pfizer and Syndax Announce Collaboration to Evaluate Combination of Avelumab and Entinostat in Ovarian Cancer
Merck KGaA, Pfizer and Syndax Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that they have entered into a collaboration agreement to evaluate avelumab, an investigational, fully human anti-PD-L1 IgG1 monoclonal antibody, in combination with Syndax’s entinostat, an investigational oral, small molecule that targets immune regulatory cells, in patients with heavily pre-treated, recurrent ovarian cancer. [Syndax Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

Intellia Therapeutics Launches New Division to Accelerate Ex Vivo Programs with CRISPR/CAS9
Intellia Therapeutics has launched a new division, eXtellia Therapeutics, with the intent of focusing resources and research on ex vivo applications of the novel technology, CRISPR/Cas9. [Intellia Therapeutics, Inc.] Press Release

Aduro Biotech Expands Patent Portfolio with Key Newly Issued Composition and Methods Patents
Aduro Biotech, Inc. announced that two patents have been issued by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office covering composition and methods related to its LADD and GVAX immunotherapy technologies. [Aduro Biotech, Inc.] Press Release

Lion Biotechnologies Submits Investigational New Drug Application to Conduct Studies in Cervical, Head and Neck Cancer
Lion Biotechnologies, Inc. announced that it has filed an investigational new drug application with the United States Food and Drug Administration to conduct clinical trials of LN-145 in the treatment of cervical cancer, and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. [Lion Biotechnologies, Inc.] Press Release

BioLife Solutions Distributor STEMCELL Technologies Will Test the evo™ Smart Shipper and Cloud Based biologistex™ Cold Chain Management App
BioLife Solutions, Inc. announced that STEMCELL Technologies will test BioLife’s evo Smart Shipper and biologistex cold chain SaaS on a variety of temperature sensitive products for research in areas such as cellular therapies, blood cancers, and solid tumors. [BioLife Solutions, Inc. (PR Newswire Association LLC)] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors 2016
March 15-17, 2016
Boston, United States

NEW Cell Culture World Congress USA 2016
May 19-20, 2016
San Diego, United States

NEW 16th International Congress of Immunology
August 21-26, 2016
Melbourne, Australia

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the Human Immunology community.
NEW Senior Immunologist (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

NEW Research Technician – CAR T Cell Therapy (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (VIB)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cell Therapy (Toronto Western Hospital)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Clinical Immunology (Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason)

Postdoctoral Positions – Hantavirus and Inflammation Research (Karolinska Institutet)

Faculty Position – Immunotherapy (Fox Chase Cancer Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Quantitative Proteomics, Phosphoproteomics and Immune-Cell Signaling (University of Southern Denmark)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology & Bioimaging (University Hospital Würzburg)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Immunotherapy (Inserm)

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