Volume 3.44 | Nov 10

Human Immunology News 3.44 November 10, 2015
Human Immunology News
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TOP STORY
In-Depth Characterization of CD24highCD38high Transitional Human B Cells Reveals Different Regulatory Profiles
Scientists explored the regulatory properties of CD24highCD38high human B cells. They revealed that human transitional B cells encompass not only transitional type 1 and type 2 B cells, as previously suggested, but also distinct anergic type 3 B cells, as well as IL-10–producing CD27+ transitional B cells. [J Allergy Clin Immunol] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
NADH Oxidase-Dependent CD39 Expression by CD8+ T Cells Modulates Interferon Gamma Responses via Generation of Adenosine
Researchers report that CD3/CD28-mediated stimulation of CD8+ T cells to generate interferon gamma (IFNγ)-producing CD8+ T cells, not only increases IFNγ production but also boosts the generation of reactive oxygen species and augments expression of CD39. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Preclinical Targeting of Human T Cell Malignancies Using CD4-Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR)-Engineered T Cells
Investigators designed a CAR, CD4CAR, which re-directs the antigen-specificity of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells to CD4-expressing cells. CD4CAR T cells derived from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cord blood effectively redirected T-cell specificity against CD4+ cells in vitro. [Leukemia] Abstract

Instructive Roles for Cytokine-Receptor Binding Parameters in Determining Signaling and Functional Potency
Using the prototypical cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13), scientists explored the interrelationships between receptor binding and a wide range of downstream cellular responses. They applied structure-based engineering to generate IL-13 variants that covered a spectrum of binding strengths for the receptor subunit IL-13Rα1. [Sci Signal] Abstract

Targeting HER-3 to Elicit Antitumor Helper T Cells against Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
To establish a novel therapeutic approach for HER-3-positive head and neck carcinoma, researchers identified a HER-3 helper epitope that could elicit effective helper T cell responses to the naturally processed HER-3-derived epitope presented in a HER-3 expressing tumors. [Sci Rep] Full Article

The Effect of Short-Chain Fatty Acids on Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells
Scientists investigated the transcriptional response of immature and LPS-matured human monocyte-derived DC to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Their data revealed distinct effects exerted by each individual SCFA on gene expression in human monocyte-derived DC, especially in the mature ones. [Sci Rep] Full Article

The Bacterial Enzyme IdeS Cleaves the IgG-Type of B Cell Receptor (BCR), Abolishes BCR-Mediated Cell Signaling, and Inhibits Memory B Cell Activation
Investigators present human in vitro and ex vivo data showing that IgG-degrading enzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes (IdeS) cleaves the IgG present in the BCR complex and very efficiently blocks Ag binding to the BCR. [J Immunol] Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

TGF-β Induces the Differentiation of Human CXCL13-Producing CD4+ T Cells
The authors report that TGF-β induces the differentiation of human CXCL13-producing CD4+ T cells from naïve CD4+ T cells. The TGF-β-induced CXCL13-producing CD4+ T cells do not express CXCR5, BCL6, and other follicular helper T-cell markers. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

Mutant Huntingtin Does Not Affect the Intrinsic Phenotype of Human Huntington’s Disease T Lymphocytes
Researchers carried out the first comprehensive investigation of human ex vivo T lymphocytes in Huntington’s disease, focusing on the frequency of a range of T lymphocyte subsets, as well as analysis of proliferation, cytokine production and gene transcription. [PLoS One] Full Article | Editorial

Generation of New Peptide-Fc Fusion Proteins that Mediate Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity against Different Types of Cancer Cells
Researchers fused cancer cell-binding peptides to the Fc domain of human IgG1 to engineer novel peptide-Fc fusion proteins with antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity activity. Treatment of cancer cells with the engineered peptide-Fc fusions in the presence of effector natural killer (NK) cells potentially enhanced cytotoxicity, degranulation, and interferon-γ production by NK cells when compared to cells treated with the Fc control. [Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Regulation of Metabolism by the Innate Immune System
The authors review the innate immune cells involved in secreting inflammatory factors in the obese state. They also discuss the role of innate immune cells, such as anti-inflammatory adipose tissue macrophages, eosinophils, group 2 innate lymphoid cells and invariant natural killer T cells, in maintaining an anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitive environment in the lean state. [Nat Rev Endocrinol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the Human Immunology research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
UCART19: First in Man Proof of Concept to be Presented
Cellectis announced that Great Ormond Street Hospital and University College London will present encouraging data from a first in man clinical use of UCART19. [Press release from Cellectis Inc. discussing research to be presented at the 57th American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting, Orlando] Press Release

Compugen Presents Translational Study Results Supporting CGEN-15001 for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis
Compugen Ltd. has disclosed recent results from a translational study supporting the potential treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with CGEN-15001. CGEN-15001 is an Fc fusion protein based on one of the multiple novel immune checkpoint candidates discovered by the company. [Press release from Compugen Ltd. (Business Wire) discussing research to be presented at the 2015 ACR/ARHP Annual Meeting, San Francisco] Press Release

Janssen Data Presentations Showcase Commitment to Rheumatologic Diseases
Janssen Biotech, Inc. announced that more than 35 abstracts from the Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies will be presented. [Press release from Janssen Biotech, Inc. discussing research to be presented at the 2015 ACR/ARHP Annual Meeting, San Francisco] Press Release

OncoMed Presents Data from Brontictuzumab, Vantictumab and Anti-DLL4/VEGF Bispecific Programs
Data from three posters covered Phase Ia safety, biomarker and anti-tumor activity of brontictuzumab, novel biomarker discoveries related to vantictumab in non-small cell lung cancer and preclinical characterization of safety and efficacy for anti-DLL4/VEGF bispecific. [Press release from OncoMed Pharmaceuticals Inc. discussing research presented at the 2015 AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics, Boston] Press Release

Data Demonstrating that SEPREHVIR Combines Synergistically with Anti-PD-1 Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor to Be Presented
Entitled “Checkpoint Blockade Enhances Oncolytic Herpes Virotherapy in Immunosuppressive Sarcoma Models”, the poster describes marked synergy between SEPREHVIR and an anti-PD-1 antibody in an immunocompetent, PD-L1 positive rhabdomyosarcoma model. [Press release from Virttu Biologics discussing research to be presented at AACR’s Advances in Pediatric Cancer Research, Fort Lauderdale] Press Release

Aduro Biotech Announces Five Poster Presentations at the Society of Immunotherapy of Cancer Annual Meeting
Aduro Biotech, Inc. announced five posters highlighting ongoing clinical trials and pre-clinical programs investigating its novel immunotherapies in development for the treatment of cancer were presented. [Press release from Aduro Biotech, Inc. discussing research presented at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Society of Immunotherapy for Cancer (SITC), National Harbor] Press Release

Advaxis Presents New Data Featuring Its Lm Technology™
Advaxis, Inc. presented a poster featuring clinical development advances with its Lm Technology™. The study evaluated whether axalimogene filolisbac could be dosed at higher levels than previous studies conducted by Advaxis in patients with persistent or recurrent metastatic carcinoma of the cervix. [Press release from Advaxis, Inc. discussing research presented at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Society of Immunotherapy for Cancer (SITC), National Harbor] Press Release

Galena Biopharma Presents GALE-302 Preliminary Immunologic Data Optimizing GALE-301
Galena Biopharma, Inc. announced that data from the company’s GALE-301 and GALE-302 clinical programs were presented. The data presented was on the primary vaccine series from a randomized Phase Ib trial with GALE-301 and GALE-302 that are folate binding protein-derived peptides. [Press release from Galena Biopharma, Inc. discussing research presented at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Society of Immunotherapy for Cancer (SITC), National Harbor] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
CytomX and MD Anderson Cancer Center Enter into Strategic Collaboration for Probody-Enabled CAR-NK Cell Therapies
CytomX Therapeutics entered into a collaboration with The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center to research Probody-enabled chimeric antigen receptor natural killer (CAR-NK) cell therapies, to be known as ProCAR-NK cell therapies. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center] Press Release

Genocea Announces Immuno-Oncology Research Collaboration with Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Genocea Biosciences, Inc. announced a collaboration with Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center to screen the T cell responses of melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors against the complete repertoire of patient-specific putative cancer neoantigens. [Genocea Biosciences, Inc.] Press Release

Viralytics and Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, New Jersey, U.S.A. to Collaborate on Combination Clinical Trial of CAVATAK™ and KEYTRUDA® in Lung and Bladder Cancer
Viralytics Limited announced that it has entered into a clinical trial collaboration agreement through subsidiaries of Merck & Co., Inc. (MSD) to evaluate the combination of Viralytics’ investigational cancer immunotherapy CAVATAK™, with MSD’s KEYTRUDA®, an antiPD-1 (programmed death receptor-1) therapy. [Viralytics Limited] Press Release

Two Prominent Investigators Recognized for Their Achievements in Lupus Research
Two prominent clinician-scientists are the 2015 recipients of prestigious career awards that recognize their important achievements in research on the autoimmune disease lupus. [Lupus Foundation of America] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 4th Immunogenicity & Immunotoxicity Conference
January 25-26, 2016
San Diego, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the Human Immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Professor – Biomedical Science (The Institute of Basic Medical Sciences Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences)

Assistant Professor – Cancer Immunology (Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology and Cell Biology (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Positions – Immunology (Pasteur Institute)

Staff Scientist – Immunology (Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Molecular Oncology (Genentech, Inc.)

Professor – Immunology (La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology)

Principal Investigator – The Role of Inflammation and the Immune Response in Regenerative Medicine (KU Leuven)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Systems Immunology/Bioinformatics (Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason (BRI))


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