Volume 3.42 | Oct 27

Human Immunology News 3.42 October 27, 2015
Human Immunology News
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TOP STORY
Research Explains Limits of Cancer Immunotherapy Drugs
Researchers reveal molecular changes within the tumor that are preventing the immunotherapy drugs from killing off the cancer. Clinical trials with PD-L1 and PD-1 blockade suggested that tumors with a high number of inflammation-causing T cells were more responsive to the immunotherapy-based PD-L1 and PD-1 inhibitors. [Press release from the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Long Non-Coding RNA Profiling of Human Lymphoid Progenitor Cells Reveals Transcriptional Divergence of B Cell and T Cell Lineages
To elucidate the transcriptional ‘landscape’ that regulates human lymphoid commitment during postnatal life, researchers used RNA sequencing to assemble the long non-coding transcriptome across human bone marrow and thymic progenitor cells spanning the earliest stages of B lymphoid and T lymphoid specification. [Nat Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

The Transcriptional Landscape of Age in Human Peripheral Blood
Scientists performed a whole-blood gene expression meta-analysis in 14,983 individuals of European ancestry and identified 1,497 genes that are differentially expressed with chronological age. [Nat Commun]
Full Article | Press Release

Sirolimus Is Effective in Relapsed/Refractory Autoimmune Cytopenias: Results of a Prospective Multi-Institutional Trial
Investigators present data on 30 patients treated on a multicenter prospective clinical trial using sirolimus as monotherapy. Double negative T cells were no longer detectable in most, yet other lymphocyte populations were spared, suggesting a targeted effect of sirolimus. [Blood] Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

Activated T Cells Enhance Interferon-α Production by Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Stimulated with RNA-Containing Immune Complexes
Scientists investigated whether T cells could promote interferon-α production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Human pDCs were stimulated with immune complexes containing U1 small nuclear ribonucleic proteins particles and systemic lupus erythematosus-IgG in the presence of T cells or T cell supernatants. [Ann Rheum Dis] Abstract

Isolation of Human Monoclonal Autoantibodies Derived from Pancreatic Lymph Node and Peripheral Blood B Cells of Islet Autoantibody-Positive Patients
Researchers investigated whether pancreatic lymph nodes could provide a source of antigen-specific B cells for analysis of immune responses within the (pre)diabetic pancreas. [Diabetologia] Abstract

Secreted Factors from Colorectal and Prostate Cancer Cells Skew the Immune Response in Opposite Directions
The distribution and prognostic value of proinflammatory M1 macrophages and immunosuppressive M2 macrophages was evaluated in a cohort of 234 prostate cancer (PC) patients. Investigators found that macrophages infiltrating PC were mainly of an M2 type and correlated with a more aggressive tumor and poor patient prognosis. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Inhibit T Cell Proliferation in Human Extranodal NK/T Cell Lymphoma: A Novel Prognostic Indicator
The authors investigated the functional features and clinical significance of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma (ENKL). MDSCs from ENKL patients inhibited the secretion of IFNγ but promoted IL-10, IL-17 and TGFβ secretion as well as Foxp3 expression in T cells. [Cancer Immunol Immunother] Full Article

TIM-3 Suppresses Anti-CD3/CD28-Induced TCR Activation and IL-2 Expression through the NFAT Signaling Pathway
Investigators generated several Jurkat T cell lines stably expressing human TIM-3 (T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing protein 3) or murine CD28-ECD/human TIM-3 intracellular tail chimeras and examined the effects that TIM-3 exerts on T cell receptor-mediated activation, cytokine secretion, promoter activity, and protein kinase association. [PLoS One] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Systemic Sclerosis: New Evidence Re-Enforces the Role of B Cells
T cell activation has been shown to contribute to fibrosis and microvasculopathy in systemic sclerosis (SSc). However, recent evidence suggests that B cells are also likely to contribute in the pathogenesis of the disease. The authors suggest that new therapeutic strategies targeting B cell function(s) can be developed for SSc. [Autoimmun Rev] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the Human Immunology research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
MabVax Therapeutics HuMab 5B1 Antibody Featured in Five Presentations
The presentations were made by investigators from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center describing the novel use of MabVax’s lead antibody as a PET imaging agent and a radioimmunotherapy agent targeting pancreatic cancer. [Press release from MabVax Therapeutics Holdings, Inc. discussing research presented at the World Molecular Imaging Congress (WMIC), Honolulu] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
First Patient Safely Treated in Cancer Vaccine Trial
Regeneus announced that the first patient has been enrolled and safely treated in the first clinical trial of RGSH4K, the company’s autologous tumor vaccine product for the treatment of solid tumors. [Regeneus Ltd.] Press Release

Novartis Receives Positive CHMP Opinion for the First IL-17A Inhibitor Cosentyx™ to Treat Ankylosing Spondylitis and Psoriatic Arthritis
Novartis announced that the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) has recommended the approval of Cosentyx™ (secukinumab) in Europe to treat ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis patients. [Novartis AG] Press Release

T-VEC Becomes First Viral Immunotherapy Recommended for Approval in Europe
A viral immunotherapy for cancer has become the first to be given the green light by European regulators. The treatment, called Talimogene laherparepvec, or T-VEC for short, has been recommended for approval by the European Medicines Agency for use in adults with advanced melanoma. [The Institute of Cancer Research] Press Release

Moderna Launches Caperna LLC, Its Fourth Venture, to Develop Personalized Cancer Vaccines
Moderna Therapeutics announced the launch of Caperna LLC, the fourth Moderna venture, which will focus exclusively on the advancement of personalized cancer vaccines. [Moderna Therapeutics] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 3rd Immunotherapy of Cancer Conference (ITOC3)
March 21-23, 2016
Munich, Germany

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the Human Immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Positions – Immunology (Pasteur Institute)

Staff Scientist – Immunology (Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Klinikum Rechts der Isar Technische Universitat Munchen)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Molecular Oncology (Genentech, Inc.)

Project Manager – Manufacturing (Qu Biologics)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow/Research Scientist – Biotechnology (Qu Biologics)

Postdoctoral Positions – Immunology (Shanghai Institute of Immunology)

Professor – Immunology (La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology)

Principal Investigator – The Role of Inflammation and the Immune Response in Regenerative Medicine (KU Leuven)

Scientist – Human T Cell Immunology (Innate Pharma S.A.)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Systems Immunology/Bioinformatics (Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason (BRI))


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