Volume 3.41 | Oct 20

Human Immunology News 3.41 October 20, 2015
Human Immunology News
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Scientists Find Way to Make Leukemia Cells Kill Each Other
Scientists have found a way to change leukemia cells into leukemia-killing immune cells. The surprise finding could lead to a powerful new therapy for leukemia and possibly other cancers. [Press release from The Scripps Research Institute discussing online prepublication in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
The HLA-G Cycle Provides for Both NK Tolerance and Immunity at the Maternal–Fetal Interface
Filamentous projections from extravillous trophoblasts enriched in HLA-G were shown to contact decidual natural killer cells (dNK), and may represent the initial stage of synapse formation. Activation of dNK resulted in the disappearance of internalized HLA-G in parallel with restoration of cytotoxicity. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Circulating Microvesicles Regulate Treg and Th17 Differentiation in Human Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders
Researchers determined the plasma levels of Annexin-V+ microvesicles (MVs) derived from different immune cells and platelets in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases and in healthy controls. T lymphocyte polarization assays were performed in the presence of MVs to evaluate their effect in Treg and Th17 differentiation. [J Clin Endocrinol Metab] Abstract | Full Article

Impact of Immunosuppressive Drugs on the Therapeutic Efficacy of Ex Vivo Expanded Human Regulatory T Cells
Investigators tested in vitro and in vivo the effects of tacrolimus, mycophenolate and methyl-prednisolone, major ISDs used in transplantation, on ex vivo expanded, rapamycin-treated human Tregs. [Haematologica] Abstract | Full Article

Antigenically Modified Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Generate Antigen-Presenting Dendritic Cells
Antigenically modified human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) were able to differentiate into tumor antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs). Without conventional antigen-loading, DCs derived from the minigene-modified hPSCs were ready to prime a tumor antigen-specific T cell response and further expand these specific T cells in restimulation processes. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Low Thymic Activity and Dendritic Cell Numbers Are Associated with the Immune Response to Primary Viral Infection in Elderly Humans
Researchers explored age-related changes in human immunity during a primary virus infection experimentally induced by immunization with live-attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine. They discovered that aged subjects developed fewer neutralizing Abs, mounted diminished YF-specific CD8+ T cell responses, and showed quantitatively and qualitatively altered YF-specific CD4+ T cell immunity. [J Immunol] Abstract

TCR Usage, Gene Expression and Function of Two Distinct FOXP3+ Treg Subsets within CD4+CD25hi T Cells Identified by Expression of CD39 and CD45RO
The authors report that expression of CD39 and CD45RO distinguishes three subpopulations within human CD4+CD25hi T cells. Initial phenotypic and functional analysis demonstrated that CD4+CD25hiCD39+CD45RO+ cells had properties consistent with effector regulatory T cells (Treg), CD4+CD25hiCD39CD45RO cells were naïve Treg, and CD4+CD25hiCD39CD45RO+ cells were predominantly non-Treg with effector T cell function. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

Induced Arginine Transport via Cationic Amino Acid Transporter-1 Is Necessary for Human T-Cell Proliferation
Investigators assumed that trans-membranous transport of arginine must be crucial for T-cell function and studied which transporters are responsible for arginine influx into primary human T lymphocytes. They showed that activation via CD3 and CD28 induces arginine transport into primary human T cells. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

Mobilization without Immune Depletion Fails to Restore Immunological Tolerance or Preserve Beta Cell Function in Recent Onset Type 1 Diabetes
The authors tested the potential of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) to impact type 1 diabetes progression in patients with recent-onset disease and assessed safety, efficacy, and mechanistic effects on the immune system. They hypothesized that pegylated G-CSF would promote regulatory T cell mobilization to a degree capable of restoring immunological tolerance and thus, preventing further decline in C-peptide production. [Clin Exp Immunol] Abstract

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Immunological Landscape and Immunotherapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
The authors review the data on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) immunogenicity, the mechanisms for HCC immune subversion and the different immunotherapies that have been tested to treat HCC. [Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol] Abstract

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A Subset of Patients with Metastatic Melanoma Achieves Clinical Benefit from Combination of Immunotherapy and Radiation Therapy
Immunotherapy combined with palliative radiation therapy for a subset of patients with metastatic melanoma reduces the growth and spread of the cancer. [Press release from the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) discussing research presented at the 57th ASTRO Annual Meeting, San Antonio] Press Release

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Nexgenia and Seattle Children’s Research Institute Join Forces to Advance Immunotherapy Research Efforts
Nexgenia is collaborating with Seattle Children’s Research Institute to develop improved immunotherapies for the treatment of cancer. The collaboration will allow researchers from both institutions to use Nexgenia’s technology platform to efficiently target and select immune cells, including CAR T cells. [Nexgenia, Inc.] Press Release

Immatics and UTHealth to Collaborate on Cellular Manufacturing for Phase I Clinical Trials
Immatics US, Inc. and The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) will collaborate on cellular manufacturing for adoptive cellular therapy clinical trials. [The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston] Press Release

Generex Announces Memorandum of Understanding in Respect of a Phase II Clinical Trial for the Antigen Express Prostate Cancer Vaccine
Generex Biotechnology Corporation announced that its wholly-owned immunotherapeutics subsidiary, Antigen Express, Inc. has entered into a Memorandum of Understanding with CompanDX Ltd. to conduct a Phase II clinical trial of the Antigen Express proprietary prostate cancer vaccine. [Generex Biotechnology Corporation] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

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Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Keystone Symposium – Cancer Immunotherapy: Immunity and Immunosuppression Meet Targeted Therapies
January 24-28, 2016
Vancouver, Canada

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NEW Staff Scientist – Immunology (Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Klinikum Rechts der Isar Technische Universitat Munchen)

NEW Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Molecular Oncology (Genentech, Inc.)

Project Manager – Manufacturing (Qu Biologics)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow/Research Scientist – Biotechnology (Qu Biologics)

Postdoctoral Position – Tumor Immunology (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Positions – Immunology (Shanghai Institute of Immunology)

Professor – Immunology (La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology)

Principal Investigator – The Role of Inflammation and the Immune Response in Regenerative Medicine (KU Leuven)

Scientist – Human T Cell Immunology (Innate Pharma S.A.)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Systems Immunology/Bioinformatics (Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason (BRI))

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