Volume 3.34 | Sep 1

Human Immunology News 3.34 September 1, 2015
Human Immunology News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Recruitment of Leukocytes Is a Hallmark of Stent Thrombosis
Recruitment of leukocytes is a hallmark of stent thrombosis, according to results from the PRESTIGE study. The findings suggest that immune cell mediated thrombotic processes may be a realistic target for novel therapies to prevent stent thrombosis. [Press release from the European Society of Cardiology® discussing online prepublication in European Heart Journal] Press Release | Full Article
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
IgH Sequences in Common Variable Immune Deficiency Reveal Altered B Cell Development and Selection
Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) patients suffer from impaired antibody responses, autoimmunity, and susceptibility to lymphoid cancers. To explore the cellular basis for these clinical phenotypes, researchers conducted high-throughput DNA sequencing of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements from 93 CVID patients and 105 control subjects and sorted naïve and memory B cells from 13 of the CVID patients and 10 of the control subjects. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract

High-Resolution Analysis of the Human T-Cell Receptor Repertoire
Scientists showed that T-cell receptor (TCR) ligation-anchored-magnetically captured PCR (TCR-LA-MC PCR) identifies TCR α- and β-chain diversity without sequence-associated or quantitative restrictions in healthy and diseased conditions. TCR-LA-MC PCR identifies convergent recombination events, classifies different stages of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in vivo and demonstrates TCR reactivation after in vitro cytomegalovirus stimulation. [Nat Commun] Full Article | Press Release

Modeling Human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency and Correction by CRISPR/Cas9-Enhanced Gene Targeting
Using severe combined immunodeficiency patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells and a T cell in vitro differentiation system, researchers demonstrated a complete block in early T cell development of JAK3-deficient cells. Correction of the JAK3 mutation by CRISPR/Cas9-enhanced gene targeting restores normal T cell development, including the production of mature T cell populations with a broad T cell receptor repertoire. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Influences of Large Sets of Environmental Exposures on Immune Responses in Healthy Adult Men
Six healthy males lived in a closed habitat simulating a spacecraft for 520 days. Investigators measured multiple immune parameters with blood samples at chosen time points after the mission. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Increased Expression of Surface CD44 in Hypoxia-DCs Skews Helper T Cells toward a Th2 Polarization
The authors previously reported that hypoxia significantly altered dendritic cells (DCs) to a DC2 phenotype and promoted a Th2 polarization of naïve T cells with increased IL-4 production. Here they found the over-expression of surface CD44 in DCs was involved in this process via ligand binding. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Interleukin-25 Mediates Transcriptional Control of PD-L1 via STAT3 in Multipotent Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (hMSCs) to Suppress Th17 Responses
Researchers found that, along with Th1 responses, hMSCs strongly suppressed Th17 responses and this required both interleukin (IL)-25—also known as IL-17E—as well as programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), a potent cell surface ligand for tolerance induction. Knockdown of IL-25 expression in hMSCs abrogated Th17 suppression in vitro and in vivo. [Stem Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Stromal Infiltration of CD8 T Cells Is Associated with Improved Clinical Outcome in HPV-Positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Carcinoma
Scientists investigated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in relation to human papillomavirus (HPV) tumor status and patient survival. HPV-positive compared with HPV-negative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma had higher infiltration in both tumor and stromal areas of CD4 and CD8 T cells but not FoxP3 T regulatory cells. [Br J Cancer] Abstract

Caspase-Independent Apoptosis in Infected Macrophages Triggered by Sulforaphane via Nrf2/p38 Signaling Pathways
Researchers showed that human THP-1-derived macrophages infected with Mycobacterium abscessus presented an increase in ROS production and cell necrosis. Interestingly, pretreatment of macrophages with sulforaphane, an activator of the antioxidant key regulator Nrf2, followed by M. abscessus infection significantly decreased mycobacterial burden. [Cell Death Discov] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Modern Approaches to HLA-Haploidentical Blood or Marrow Transplantation
The authors provide an overview of the three most-developed approaches to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical allogeneic blood or bone-marrow transplantation: T-cell depletion with ‘megadose’ CD34+ cells; granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-primed allografts combined with intensive pharmacological immunosuppression, including antithymocyte globulin; and high-dose, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide. [Nat Rev Clin Oncol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the Human Immunology research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
MabVax Therapeutics HuMab 5B1 Antibody Is Highlighted in Five Separate Presentations
MabVax Therapeutics Holdings, Inc. announced that the company’s lead antibody, HuMab 5B1, will be garnering major attention as the subject of five separate presentations. Researchers from the Department of Radiology at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center will present results on the use of MabVax’s lead antibody as a PET imaging agent and as a radioimmunotherapy agent targeting pancreatic cancer. [Press release from MabVax Therapeutics Holdings, Inc. discussing research to be presented at the World Molecular Imaging Congress (WMIC), Honolulu] Press Release

Biothera to Present New Data at International Cancer Immunotherapy Conference
Biothera will present new data to cancer researchers from around the world that expands scientific understanding of how the company’s investigational cancer immunotherapy Imprime PGG® engages both the innate and adaptive immune systems to kill antibody-targeted cancer cells. [Press release from Biothera, The Immune Health Company discussing research to be presented at the International Cancer Immunotherapy Conference, New York City] Press Release

Phase II Study of Advaxis’s Axalimogene Filolisbac (ADXS-HPV) in Cervical Cancer to Be Presented
Advaxis, Inc. announced that final clinical data from Stage 1 of the ongoing two-stage Phase II study of Advaxis’s lead Lm Technology™ immunotherapy, axalimogene filolisbac, in patients with persistent or recurrent metastatic carcinoma of the cervix, will be presented. [Press release from Advaxis, Inc. discussing research to be presented at the American Gynecological & Obstetrical Society (AGOS) Annual Meeting, Half Moon Bay] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Syndax Enters Clinical Trial Collaboration in Cancer Immunotherapy Combining Entinostat and Atezolizumab
Syndax Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that it has entered into a clinical collaboration with Genentech to evaluate the safety, tolerability and preliminary efficacy of Syndax’s entinostat, an oral small molecule that targets immune regulatory cells, in combination with Genentech’s atezolizumab a fully humanized monoclonal antibody targeting protein programmed cell death ligand 1, in patients with triple-negative breast cancer. [Syndax Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

Researchers Develop Drug to Treat Scarring and Autoimmune Diseases
An anti-scarring drug invented by UBC researchers will soon complete testing to determine its safety in humans as a topically administered drug. [University of British Columbia (UBC)] Press Release

Neovacs Receives First Regulatory Approvals for a Phase IIb Trial in Lupus
Neovacs announced that it has been granted first approvals by regulatory agencies and ethics committees in several European countries for a Phase IIb clinical trial of IFNα-Kinoid in systemic lupus erythematosus or lupus. [Neovacs] Press Release

ADMA Biologics Receives Patent Issuance Pertaining to the Treatment of Immunodeficiency
ADMA Biologics, Inc. announced that the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has issued United States Patent 9,107,906. The patent titled Compositions And Methods For The Treatment of Immunodeficiency relates to the use of human plasma immunoglobulin compositions containing select antibody titers specific for a plurality of respiratory pathogens; methods of identifying human donors and donor samples for use in the compositions; methods of manufacturing the compositions; and methods of utilizing the compositions by prophylactic and or therapeutic treatments. [ADMA Biologics, Inc.] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) 2015
November 4-8, 2015
National Harbor, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the Human Immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Tenure Track or Early Career/Tenured Investigator – Immunology (National Institutes of Health – National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroimmunology (Brain and Spine Institute (ICM))

Senior Research Technician (Qu Biologics Inc.)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Development and Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer (University College London)

Faculty Positions – Stem Cell/Immunology/Medical Virology (Hallym University Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Biotechnology (Qu Biologics Inc.)

Harry Eagle Scholar Awards for Postdoctoral Candidates (Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University)

Postdoctoral Positions – Cancer Research (Rutgers University)

Research Associate – Cell Biology (Editas Medicine)

Senior Research Associate (Editas Medicine)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Immunology (New York University School of Medicine)


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