Volume 3.32 | Aug 18

Human Immunology News 3.32 August 18, 2015
Human Immunology News
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TOP STORY
Vaccine for Common Childhood Infection May Finally Be Possible
Researchers have successfully completed the first human trial of a vaccine for a common virus that is particularly dangerous to infants. After fifty years of failed attempts around the world, a vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a major cause of respiratory disease, may now be within sight. [Press release from Oxford University discussing publication in Science Translational Medicine] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Peripheral Natural Killer Cell and Allo-Stimulated T-Cell Function in Kidney Transplant Recipients Associate with Cancer Risk and Immunosuppression-Related Complications
Scientists tested whether anti-tumor natural killer (NK) cell and allo-responsive T-cell function in kidney transplant recipients may predict cancer risk and define risk of rejection. NK function was significantly impaired and the allo-response was significantly lower in kidney transplant recipients with cancer. [Kidney Int] Abstract

Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Inhibited T Follicular Helper Cell Generation in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Researchers demonstrated that allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could suppress T follicular helper (Tfh) cell differentiation in rheumatoid arthritis patients partly via the production of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). IFNγ generated from Tfh cell differentiation system induced IDO expression on MSCs. [Sci Rep] Full Article

AhR Is a Molecular Target of Calcitriol in Human T Cells
Scientists demonstrated that the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, has a profound inhibitory effect on the development of human Th9, a CD4 T cell subset that is highly associated with asthma, in an IL-10-independent manner. [J Immunol] Abstract

Macrophage Subtype Predicts Lymph Node Metastasis in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Promotes Cancer Cell Invasion In Vitro
Investigators studied the potential of applying subtype macrophages to predict lymph node metastasis and prognosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). They tested if CD163 macrophages could promote EAC cell migration and invasion. [Br J Cancer] Abstract

Human dNK Cell Function Is Differentially Regulated by Extrinsic Cellular Engagement and Intrinsic Activating Receptors in First and Second Trimester Pregnancy
Scientists investigated the functional character of human decidual natural killer (dNK) cells during the first and second trimester of gestation and the interaction between dNK and trophoblast cells. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

Gene Expression Patterns in CD4+ Peripheral Blood Cells in Healthy Subjects and Stage IV Melanoma Patients
In an effort to capture individual differences in immune responsiveness, researchers analyzed patterns of gene expression in human peripheral blood cells using RNAseq. Focusing on CD4+ peripheral blood cells, they describe multiple categories of immune regulating genes, which are expressed in highly ordered patterns shared by cohorts of healthy subjects and stage IV melanoma patients. [Cancer Immunol Immunother] Abstract

Protamine-Stabilized RNA as an Ex Vivo Stimulant of Primary Human Dendritic Cell Subsets
The authors investigated the immunostimulatory effect of complexes that formed various salt concentrations on purified dendritic cell (DC) subsets. Both myeloid DCs and plasmacytoid DCs upregulated maturation markers and produced pro-inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent way to the protamine–RNA complexes. [Cancer Immunol Immunother] Full Article

Activation of Human Naïve Th Cells Increases Surface Expression of GD3 and Induces Neoexpression of GD2 that Colocalize with TCR Clusters
Scientists report that anti-CD3/anti-CD28 activated purified human naïve T helper (Th) cells show a significant increase in surface sialic acid (Sia), as assessed by metabolic labeling, compared to resting naïve Th cells, suggesting an increased flux of Sia towards Siaα2,8 glycoconjugates. [Glycobiology] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Adoptive T-Cell Therapy for Fungal Infections in Hematology Patients
The authors discuss the incidence and changing patterns of invasive fungal diseases, clinical evidence supporting the role of T cells in fungal immunity, methods to expand fungus-specific T cells in the laboratory and considerations surrounding the use of T cells for fungal immunotherapy. [Clin Transl Immunology] Full Article

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Immune Design Announces Phase II Cancer Immunotherapy Trial Collaboration
Immune Design announced it has entered into a clinical trial collaboration with Genentech to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Immune Design’s CMB305 cancer immunotherapy product candidate combined with the investigational cancer immunotherapy atezolizumab in a randomized Phase II trial in patients with soft tissue sarcoma. [Immune Design] Press Release

Pivotal Phase II Study Showed Roche’s Investigational Immunotherapy Atezolizumab Shrank Tumors in People with a Specific Type of Lung Cancer
Roche announced that in the large pivotal Phase II study, BIRCH, the investigational cancer immunotherapy atezolizumab met its primary endpoint and shrank tumors in people with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer whose disease expressed PD-L1 (programmed death ligand-1). [F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.] Press Release

TapImmune Completes Transfer of IND from the Mayo Clinic
TapImmune, Inc. announced the successful conveyance of the Mayo Clinic IND (Investigational New Drug application) to TapImmune as part of the recently completed licensing agreement. The transfer marks a critical step in reaching the company’s major milestone of initiating TapImmune’s sponsored Phase II trials in patients with triple-negative breast cancer or ovarian cancer. [TapImmune, Inc.] Press Release

European Commission Grants Marketing Authorization for Unituxin™ (Dinutuximab) for the Treatment of Pediatric High-Risk Neuroblastoma
United Therapeutics Corporation announced that the European Commission has granted Marketing Authorization for Unituxin™ for the treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma in patients aged 12 months to 17 years, who have previously received induction chemotherapy and achieved at least a partial response, followed by myeloablative therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. [United Therapeutics Corporation] Press Release

ImmunoCellular Therapeutics Reaches Agreement with FDA on Special Protocol Assessment (SPA) for ICT-107 Phase III Registrational Trial in Glioblastoma
ImmunoCellular Therapeutics, Ltd. announced that it has reached agreement with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on a SPA for the Phase III registrational trial of its cancer immunotherapy ICT-107 to treat patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. [ImmunoCellular Therapeutics, Ltd.] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Cell Symposium: Human Immunity and the Microbiome in Health and Disease
September 27-29, 2015
Montreal, Canada

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the Human Immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Senior Research Technician (Qu Biologics Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Development and Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer (University College London)

Faculty Positions – Stem Cell/Immunology/Medical Virology (Hallym University Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Biotechnology (Qu Biologics Inc.)

Harry Eagle Scholar Awards for Postdoctoral Candidates (Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University)

Postdoctoral Positions – Cancer Research (Rutgers University)

Research Associate – Cell Biology (Editas Medicine)

Senior Research Associate (Editas Medicine)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Immunology (New York University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Cellectis Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Immunology (Huazhong University of Science and Technology)


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