Volume 3.21 | Jun 2

Human Immunology News 3.21 June 2, 2015
Human Immunology News
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World First as Viral Immunotherapy for Skin Cancer Shows Patient Benefit in Phase III Trial
A genetically engineered herpes virus can halt the progression of skin cancer by killing cancer cells and sparking the immune system into action against tumors, a landmark clinical trial has shown. [Press release from the Institute of Cancer Research discussing research published in Journal of Clinical Oncology] Press Release | Video | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Human HLA-G+ Extravillous Trophoblasts: Immune-Activating Cells that Interact with Decidual Leukocytes
Interaction of extravillous trophoblasts with CD4+ T cells resulted in increased numbers of CD4+CD25HIFOXP3+CD45RA+ resting regulatory T cells (Treg) and increased the expression level of the Treg-specific transcription factor FOXP3 in these cells. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Sialyl Lewis X (CD15s) Identifies Highly Differentiated and Most Suppressive FOXP3high Regulatory T Cells in Humans
Investigators found that CD15s was highly specific for activated, terminally differentiated, and most suppressive FOXP3high effector regulatory T cells and able to differentiate them in various clinical settings from nonsuppressive FOXP3+ T cells secreting inflammatory cytokines. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA]
Abstract | Full Article

Individual Human Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Exhibit Intraclonal Heterogeneity during Sustained Killing
Scientists combined bulk and single-cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) killing assays over a prolonged time period to provide the killing statistics of clonal human CTLs against an excess of target cells. Their data reveal efficiency in sustained killing at the population level, which relied on a highly heterogeneous multiple killing performance at the individual level. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Twist1 and Twist2 Contribute to Cytokine Downregulation following Chronic NOD2 Stimulation of Human Macrophages through the Coordinated Regulation of Transcriptional Repressors and Activators
Scientists found that Twist1 and Twist2 were required for optimal cytokine downregulation during acute and, particularly, chronic nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) stimulation of human macrophages. Consistently, Twist1 and Twist2 expression was increased after chronic NOD2 stimulation; this increased expression was IL-10 and TGF-β dependent. [J Immunol] Abstract

Gene Expression Studies of a Human Monocyte Cell Line Identify Dissimilarities between Differently Manufactured Glatiramoids
In order to better characterize glatiramer acetate (GA)’s biological impact, genome-wide expression studies were conducted with a human monocyte cell line. Consistent with previous literature, branded GA upregulated anti-inflammatory markers and modulated multiple immune-related pathways. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Lentivirus-Induced ‘Smart’ Dendritic Cells: Pharmacodynamics and GMP-Compliant Production for Immunotherapy against TRP2-Positive Melanoma
Monocytes directly induced to self-differentiate into dendritic cells (DCs) from five advanced melanoma patients were tested in autologous DC:T cell stimulation assays, validating the activation of functional tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes for all patients. [Gene Ther] Full Article

Human Trophoblast Cells Induced MDSCs from Peripheral Blood CD14+ Myelomonocytic Cells via Elevated Levels of CCL2
Investigators demonstrated that the trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo could instruct peripheral CD14+ myelomonocytic cells toward a novel subpopulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), denoted as CD14+HLA-DR−/low cells, with suppressive activity and increased expression of IDO1, ARG-1, and COX2. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

Frequency, Suppressive Capacity, Recruitment and Induction Mechanisms of Regulatory T Cells in Sinonasal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Nasal Inverted Papilloma
Researchers evaluated the frequency and suppressive capacity of regulatory T cells in sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma compared to nasal inverted papilloma and explored the underlying mechanisms. [PLoS One] Full Article

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Type I Interferons in Anticancer Immunity
Scientists discuss accumulating evidence indicating that type I interferons produced by malignant cells or tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells control the autocrine or paracrine circuits that underlie cancer immunosurveillance. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

Immune Cell Profiling to Guide Therapeutic Decisions in Rheumatic Diseases
The authors discuss technological advances in the high-dimensional analysis of immune cells and consider how these developments might support the discovery of predictive biomarkers to benefit the practice of rheumatology and improve patient care. [Nat Rev Rheumatol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.
Researchers Report that MEDI4736 Combined with Tremelimumab Results in Acceptable Toxicity, Clinical Activity in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients
Researchers presented data from a Phase Ib dose-escalation and expansion study of MEDI4736 combined with tremelimumab. [Press release from Moffitt Cancer Center discussing research presented at the 2015 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, Chicago] Press Release

Nivolumab Treatment in Melanoma Patients Has Manageable Safety Profile, Additional Immunomodulatory Agents Do Not Affect Response Rates
The monoclonal antibody nivolumab has shown promise as a therapeutic agent, particularly by improving the survival rates of melanoma patients. Jeffrey S. Weber, M.D., Ph.D., presented data from a retrospective analysis of the safety of nivolumab in four ongoing Phase I-III studies in melanoma patients. [Press release from Moffitt Cancer Center discussing research presented at the 2015 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, Chicago] Press Release

Galena Biopharma Announces Publication of Two Abstracts
Galena Biopharma, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company developing and commercializing innovative, targeted oncology therapeutics that address major medical needs across the full spectrum of cancer care, announced two abstract publications. [Press release from Galena Biopharma, Inc. discussing research presented at the 2015 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, Chicago] Press Release

Melanoma, Pediatric Oncology, Lymphoma & Plasma Cell Disorders Dominate Research Presentations
NYU Langone Medical Center and its Laura and Isaac Perlmutter Cancer Center have researchers presenting close to 30 abstracts accepted for oral, poster, and publication presentations. [Press release from NYU Langone Medical Center discussing research presented at the 2015 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, Chicago] Press Release

ORYX Presents Positive Phase I/IIa Data with Therapeutic Vaccine MicOryx to Treat MSI-H Colorectal Cancers
ORYX reported positive Phase I/IIa clinical trial results of therapeutic vaccine MicOryx to treat advanced microsatellite instable (MSI-H) colorectal cancer. [Press release from ORYX discussing research presented at the 2015 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, Chicago] Press Release

Targovax Presented Safety Data and Immunological Results
Targovax presented safety data and immunological results from the ongoing Phase I/II clinical study CT-TG01-01, testing the therapeutic cancer vaccine TG01 in combination with gemcitabine in patients with resected pancreatic cancer. [Press release from Targovax discussing research presented at the 2015 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, Chicago] Press Release | Poster

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Juno Therapeutics and Editas Medicine Announce Exclusive Collaboration to Create Next-Generation CAR T and TCR Cell Therapies
Juno Therapeutics, Inc. and Editas Medicine announced an exclusive collaboration focused on creating chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T) and high-affinity T cell receptor (TCR) therapies to treat cancer. [Juno Therapeutics, Inc.] Press Release

Amgen Announces Collaboration with Roche on Cancer Immunotherapy Study with Investigational Medicines Talimogene Laherparepvec and Atezolizumab
Amgen announced a collaboration with Roche on a Phase Ib study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of talimogene laherparepvec, Amgen’s investigational oncolytic immunotherapy, in combination with Roche’s investigational anti-PDL1 therapy, atezolizumab, in patients with triple-negative breast cancer and colorectal cancer with liver metastases. [Amgen Inc.] Press Release

Merck and Dynavax Announce New Collaboration Investigating the Combination of Immuno-Oncology Therapies
Merck and Dynavax Technologies Corporation announced they have entered into two clinical trial collaboration agreements to investigate the potential synergistic effect of combining immunotherapies from both companies’ pipelines: Merck’s anti-PD-1 therapy, KEYTRUDA®, and its investigational anti-interleukin-10 immunomodulator, MK-1966, with Dynavax’s investigational toll-like receptor 9 agonist, SD-101. [Dynavax Technologies Corporation] Press Release

Astellas and Anokion to Collaborate on Immune Tolerance Therapeutics
Astellas Pharma Inc. and Anokion SA announced an agreement to collaborate in the fields of type 1 diabetes and celiac disease. A new company, Kanyos Bio, Inc. has been created to develop clinical candidates in the two selected indications, with an option for Astellas to add a third autoimmune indication as part of the collaboration. [Astellas Pharma Inc.] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Immuno-Oncology
September 30-October 1, 2015
Alexandria, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
NEW PhD Position – Molecular Immunology (VIB – Ghent University)

Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Head Stem Cells Immunotherapies Service Lab (NHS Blood and Transplant)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Reconstitution in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (Stanford University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Tolerance (Stanford University)

Research Scientist – Immunology (Gilead Sciences)

PhD Position – Microbial Immunology (Hans Knöll Institute)

Process Facilitator (Opexa Therapeutics)

Scientist – Immunology Discovery (Genentech, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (University of California, San Francisco)

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