Volume 3.20 | May 26

Human Immunology News 3.20 May 26, 2015
Human Immunology News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Study Explains How Early Childhood Vaccination Reduces Leukemia Risk
Researchers have shown that recurrent Haemophilus influenzae Type b infections can put certain immune-system genes into overdrive, converting “pre-leukemia” blood cells – which are present in a surprisingly large number of newborns – into full-blown cancer. [Press release from UCSF discussing online prepublication in Nature Immunology] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Antibodies to Interleukin-2 Elicit Selective T Cell Subset Potentiation through Distinct Conformational Mechanisms
Researchers found that regulatory T cell (Treg) JES6-1 sterically blocked interleukin-2 (IL-2):IL-2 receptor β (IL-2Rβ) and IL-2:IL-2Rγ interactions, but also allosterically lowered IL-2:IL-2Rα affinity through a “triggered exchange” mechanism favoring IL-2Rαhi Treg cells, creating a positive feedback loop for IL-2Rαhi cell activation. [Immunity] Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Clonal Deletion Prunes but Does Not Eliminate Self-Specific αβ CD8+ T Lymphocytes
Researchers found that self-peptide MHC-specific CD8+ T cells in the blood of healthy humans were present in frequencies similar to those specific for non-self antigens. [Immunity] Abstract | Press Release

Adoptive Transfer of Activated Marrow-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Induces Measurable Antitumor Immunity in the Bone Marrow in Multiple Myeloma
Scientists hypothesized that adoptive T cell therapy using marrow-infiltrating lymphocytes (MILs) in multiple myeloma (MM) could impart greater antitumor immunity in that they were obtained from the tumor microenvironment. They describe the results from the first clinical trial using MILs in MM. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

The Neutrophil-Recruiting Chemokine GCP-2/CXCL6 Is Expressed in Cystic Fibrosis Airways and Retains Its Functional Properties after Binding to Extracellular DNA
Granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2)/CXCL6 (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6), a neutrophil-activating chemokine with bactericidal properties, was detected in the airway epithelium of cystic fibrosis patients and was also present in azurophilic and specific granules of neutrophils. Elastase of neutrophils, but not of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, completely degraded CXCL6. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Factors Involved in CLL Pathogenesis and Cell Survival Are Disrupted by Differentiation of CLL B-Cells into Antibody-Secreting Cells
Researchers investigated changes in the immunophenotypic, molecular, functional, morphological features associated with terminal differentiation into antibody-secreting cells, the expression of factors involved in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) pathogenesis, and the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in the differentiated cells. [Oncotarget] Full Article

The Catalytic Activity of the Kinase ZAP-70 Mediates Basal Signaling and Negative Feedback of the T Cell Receptor Pathway
Researchers performed a mass spectrometry–based phosphoproteomic study comparing the quantitative differences in the temporal dynamics of phosphorylation in stimulated and unstimulated T cells with or without inhibition of ZAP-70 catalytic activity. [Sci Signal] Abstract

Maternal Obesity Alters Immune Cell Frequencies and Responses in Umbilical Cord Blood Samples
Investigators examined the relationship between maternal body weight and the human neonatal immune system. Umbilical cord blood samples were collected from infants born to lean, overweight, and obese mothers. Frequency and function of major innate and adaptive immune cell populations were quantified using flow cytometry and multiplex analysis of circulating factors. [Pediatr Allergy Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

Trichuris suis Soluble Products Induce Rab7b Expression and Limit TLR4 Responses in Human Dendritic Cells
Investigators determined the effects of T. suis soluble products on Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4)-stimulated human dendritic cells using Illumina bead chip gene arrays. [Genes Immun] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Therapeutic Approaches to Enhance Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity against Cancer: The Force Awakens
A growing number of scientific discoveries into pathways that both activate and suppress natural killer (NK) cell function, as well as methods to sensitize tumors to NK cell cytotoxicity, have led to the development of numerous pharmacological and genetic methods to enhance NK cell antitumor immunity. [Nat Rev Drug Discov] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.

Invitation to Attend SMi 2nd Annual Immunogenicity Conference 2015
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Ludwig Scientists to Report Advances in Treatment of Brain, Skin, Gastrointestinal Cancers
Ludwig researchers will present recent data from early and late stage clinical trials and participate in a number of plenary and educational sessions. [Press release from Ludwig Cancer Research discussing research to be presented at the 2015 American Society for Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, Chicago] Press Release

Amphivena Therapeutics to Present Data on Novel Cancer Immunotherapy
Amphivena Therapeutics, Inc. announced that the company will present data from its novel cancer immunotherapy program in acute myeloid leukemia for the first time in three poster presentations. [Press release from Amphivena Therapeutics, Inc. (MarketWatch, Inc.) discussing research to be presented at the 2015 American Society for Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, Chicago] Press Release

Genocea Announces Positive Top-Line Phase II Data for Genital Herpes Immunotherapy GEN-003
Genocea Biosciences, Inc. announced positive top-line data from a Phase II dose optimization trial evaluating GEN-003 for the treatment of genital herpes. [Genocea Biosciences, Inc.] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
CPRIT Awards $16.6 Million for Cancer Research, Prevention, and Faculty Recruitment
The Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas (CPRIT) has awarded UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers more than $12.6 million in research grants for cancer research and prevention, as well as an additional $4 million for recruiting cancer scientists. [UT Southwestern Medical Center] Press Release

Researchers Developing Ground-Breaking Therapeutic Cancer Vaccine
A novel way of treating cancer using immunotherapy has been discovered in a joint research venture between Victoria University and the Malaghan Institute of Medical Research, and is on track to being tested on cancer patients. [Victoria University (Medical Xpress)] Press Release

CVac Shows Overall Survival Benefit in Second Remission Ovarian Cancer Phase II Study
Prima BioMed Ltd. announced that the final CVac data from the Phase II CAN-003 ovarian cancer clinical trial has shown a clear trend for a clinically meaningful improvement in overall survival over standard of care in second remission patients. [Prima BioMed Ltd.] Press Release

Regeneus Receives Approval for Personalized Cancer Immunotherapy Trial
Regeneus has received ethics approval to commence its first-in-human trial for a personalized therapeutic cancer vaccine that is aimed at harnessing the body’s own immune system to fight cancer cells. [Regeneus Ltd.] Press Release

Batu Biologics Files Patent on Blood Derived Anti-Cancer Immunomodulator
Batu Biologics announced filing of a patent application covering a recent finding by the company regarding ability to stimulate innate immune system through products that are coaxed out of white blood cells by stimulation with non-toxic agents. [Batu Biologics (Business Wire)] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Cell Symposium: Cell Death and Immunity
November 8-10, 2015
Berkeley, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Head Stem Cells Immunotherapies Service Lab (NHS Blood and Transplant)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Reconstitution in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (Stanford University)

Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Tolerance (Stanford University)

Research Scientist – Immunology (Gilead Sciences)

PhD Position – Microbial Immunology (Hans Knöll Institute)

Process Facilitator (Opexa Therapeutics)

Scientist – Immunology Discovery (Genentech, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (University of California, San Francisco)


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