Volume 3.17 | May 5

Human Immunology News 3.17 May 5, 2015
Human Immunology News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
4-1BB Costimulation Ameliorates T Cell Exhaustion Induced by Tonic Signaling of Chimeric Antigen Receptors
Researchers showed that tonic chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) CD3-ζ phosphorylation, triggered by antigen-independent clustering of CAR single-chain variable fragments, can induce early exhaustion of CAR T cells that limits antitumor efficacy. [Nat Med] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
CMV-Specific T Cells Generated from Naïve T Cells Recognize Atypical Epitopes and May Be Protective In Vivo
Investigators demonstrated the feasibility of deriving cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cells from naïve cells for T cell therapy. Naïve T cells primed to recognize CMV were restricted to different, atypical epitopes than T cells derived from CMV-seropositive individuals; however, these two cell populations had similar avidities. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

Ipilimumab-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity of Regulatory T Cells Ex Vivo by Nonclassical Monocytes in Melanoma Patients
Researchers studied 29 patients with advanced cutaneous melanoma treated with ipilimumab. They analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells and matched melanoma metastases from 15 patients responding and 14 not responding to ipilimumab by multicolor flow cytometry, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay, and immunohistochemistry [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells as an Immune Parameter in Patients with Concurrent Sunitinib and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy
The numbers of granulocytic and monocytic MDSC subsets, effector T cells and regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood were evaluated pre- and post-sunitinib treatment and concurrent with stereotactic body radiotherapy. [Clin Cancer Res] Abstract

Expression of GM-CSF in T Cells Is Increased in Multiple Sclerosis and Suppressed by IFN-β Therapy
Researchers characterized GM-CSF production by T cells of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and determined the effect of IFN-β therapy on its production. GM-CSF production by peripheral blood T cells and the effects of IFN-β were characterized in samples of untreated and IFN-β–treated MS patients versus healthy subjects. [J Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

Intratumoral Injection of IFN-Alpha Dendritic Cells after Dacarbazine Activates Anti-Tumor Immunity: Results from a Phase I Trial in Advanced Melanoma
Scientists tested in a Phase I clinical study in advanced melanoma a chemo-immunotherapy approach based on unloaded dendritic cells generated in presence of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) injected intratumorally one day after administration of dacarbazine. [J Transl Med] Abstract | Full Article

Cytotoxicity and Infiltration of Human NK Cells in In Vivo-Like Tumor Spheroids
Three-dimensional in vivo-like tumor spheroids were established from human cervical carcinoma cell lines as proof of concept to investigate infiltration and cytotoxicity of NK cells in a 96-well plate format. Tumor spheroids were monitored for NK cell infiltration and cytotoxicity by flow cytometry. [BMC Cancer] Abstract | Full Article

The Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) Enhances Autophagy and Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Pancreatic Cancer
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have an important role in the pathogenesis of several sterile inflammatory diseases, including malignancy, therefore researchers investigated the role of NETs in the setting of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. [Cancer Gene Ther] Abstract

Serum Level of Soluble Interleukin-2 Receptor Correlates with CD25 Expression in Patients with T Lymphoblastic Lymphoma
The authors examined the serum level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor in 23 patients with T lymphoblastic lymphoma and compared these with the levels in 20 patients with T acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 40 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and 40 patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified. [J Clin Pathol] Abstract

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REVIEWS
The Unusual Suspects—Innate Lymphoid Cells as Novel Therapeutic Targets in IBD
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) rapidly respond to environmental cues, including cytokines, metabolic signals and luminal bacteria. They are potent and immediate producers of key cytokines linked to IBD pathogenesis, including TNF, IL-17, IL-22 and IFN-γ. Some subsets are implicated as mediators of chronic intestinal inflammation, whereas others might provide protective functions. [Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
TxCell Presents Positive Results for Col-Treg in a Model of Autoimmune Uveitis
TxCell SA announced that activity and tolerance data for its second lead product collagen II-specific regulatory Type 1 cells (Col-Treg) were presented. [Press release from TxCell SA discussing research presented at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO), Denver] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Turnstone Biologics Inc. to Accelerate Clinical and Commercial Translation of Cancer Immunotherapies
The Fight Against Cancer Innovation Trust and its partners announced the formation of Turnstone Biologics Inc., a biotechnology company focused on developing treatments for cancer that harness the patient’s own immune system. [Fight Against Cancer Innovation Trust] Press Release

Immunicum Includes First Patient in a Phase II Study in Patients with Metastatic Kidney Cancer
Immunicum AB announced that the first patient has been included in the international Phase II study with the therapeutic cancer vaccine INTUVAX for the treatment of patients with metastatic kidney cancer. [Immunicum AB] Press Release

MabVax Therapeutics’ Human Antibody Clinical Development Candidate HuMab 5B1 Successfully Clears Important Early Toxicology Testing
MabVax Therapeutics Holdings, Inc. announced it has received the final report on toxicology testing of its HuMab 5B1 antibody, which was completed by a leading independent contract research organization. The report detailed that the antibody, given in either a single dose or repeated doses, had no significant adverse findings even at the highest dosage levels tested. [MabVax Therapeutics Holdings, Inc.] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Gordon Research Conference: Apoptotic Cell Recognition and Clearance
June 14-19, 2015
Biddeford, United States

NEW Targeting Cell Death Mechanisms for the Treatment of Human Diseases
November 9-13, 2015
Suzhou, China

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

NEW Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

NEW Scientist – Clinical Immunology (Amgen, Inc.)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (University of California, San Francisco)

Postdoctoral Position – Human Immune System Microbiota (Karolinska Institutet)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Mucosal Immunology and Mycobiome (Cedars-Sinai Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Institut Curie)

Associate Scientist – Immunology and Stem Cell Biology (Nerdbio Inc.)


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