Volume 3.06 | Feb 17

Human Immunology News 3.06 February 17, 2015
Human Immunology News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Researchers Reveal Link between Powerful Gene Regulatory Elements and Autoimmune Diseases
Investigators have discovered the genomic switches of a blood cell key to regulating the human immune system. [Press release from the National Institutes of Health discussing online publication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Single-Cell Analysis Shows that Paracrine Signaling by First Responder Cells Shapes the Interferon-β Response to Viral Infection
Researchers investigated the mechanisms underlying how increases in the amount of the gene encoding interferons-β (Ifnb1) mRNA per cell and in the numbers of cells expressing Ifnb1 calibrate the response to viral infection. They used single-cell, single-molecule assays to quantify the early induction of Ifnb1 expression in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells infected with Newcastle disease virus. [Science] Abstract

Binding of the Fap2 Protein of Fusobacterium nucleatum to Human Inhibitory Receptor TIGIT Protects Tumors from Immune Cell Attack
Researchers show that natural killer (NK) cell killing of various tumors is inhibited in the presence of various F. nucleatum strains. Their data support that this F. nucleatum-mediated inhibition is mediated by human, but not by mouse TIGIT, an inhibitory receptor present on all human NK cells and on various T cells. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Compartment-Specific Immunity in the Human Gut: Properties and Functions of Dendritic Cells in the Colon versus the Ileum
Scientists aimed to characterize human colonic versus ileal dendritic cells (DC). Human DC from paired colonic and ileal samples were characterized by flow cytometry, electron microscopy or used to stimulate T cell responses in a mixed leucocyte reaction. [Gut] Full Article

Phenotype and Function of Nasal Dendritic Cells
By using a variety of parameters, investigators defined nasal dendritic cells (DCs) in mice and humans. In a cohort of human volunteers, BDCA-1+ DCs were observed to be the dominant nasal DC population at steady state. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Self-Restrained B Cells Arise following Membrane IgE Expression
Scientists demonstrate a self-controlled membrane immunoglobulin E (mIgE)+ B cell stage. Primary or transfected mIgE+ cells relocate the B cell receptors into spontaneously internalized lipid rafts, lose mobility to chemokines, and change morphology. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Blocking of LFA-1 Enhances Expansion of Th17 Cells Induced by Human CD14+CD16++ Nonclassical Monocytes
Researchers aimed to obtain new mechanistic insights on the capacity of monocyte subsets from healthy donors to activate IL-17+ T-cell responses in vitro, and to assess whether this function was maintained or lost in states of chronic inflammation. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

Human T Cell Activation Induces Synaptic Translocation and Alters Expression of the Serine Protease Inhibitor Neuroserpin and Its Target Protease
The authors report that the serine protease inhibitor neuroserpin, an axonally secreted protein thought to play roles in the formation of the neuronal synapse and refinement of synaptic activity, is expressed in human naïve effector memory and central memory subsets of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, as well as monocytes, B cells, and NK cells. [J Leukoc Biol] Abstract

CD4+ T Cell STAT3 Phosphorylation Precedes Acute GvHD, and Subsequent Th17 Tissue Invasion Correlates with GvHD Severity and Therapeutic Response
Scientists show that pSTAT3 Y705 is increased significantly in CD4+ T cells among human recipients of allogeneic HCT before the onset of Grade II-IV acute GvHD. Examination of target-organ tissues at the time of GvHD diagnosis indicates that the amount of RORγt+ Th17 cells is significantly higher in severe GvHD. [J Leukoc Biol] Abstract

Phenotypic and Functional Comparison of Two Distinct Subsets of Programmable Cell of Monocytic Origin (PCMOs)-Derived Dendritic Cells with Conventional Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells
Investigators report the generation of two functionally distinct subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) derived from pPCMOs in the presence of IL-3 or tumor necrosis factor alpha. The phenotypes of the DCs generated were characterized by flow cytometry, and the cells’ phagocytic activities were measured using FITC-conjugated latex bead uptake. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

Trogocytosis-Mediated Expression of HER2 on Immune Cells May Be Associated with a Pathological Complete Response to Trastuzumab-Based Primary Systemic Therapy in HER2-Overexpressing Breast Cancer Patients
To assess the trogocytosis of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) from cancer cells to immune cells, and to evaluate the up- and down-regulation of HER2 on immune and cancer cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers and breast cancer patients were co-cultured with HER2-overexpressing and HER2-negative breast cancer cell lines with and without trastuzumab, respectively. [BMC Cancer] Abstract | Full Article

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REVIEWS
FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells and Their Functional Regulation
The authors summarize the molecular mechanisms underlying the stability, plasticity and functional activity of FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, and provide insight into their potential use or manipulation during Treg cell therapy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, graft-versus-host disease and cancer. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

Mobilized Peripheral Blood Grafts Include More than Hematopoietic Stem Cells: The Immunological Perspective
Immune recovery is as crucial as hematopoietic reconstitution, and higher T and natural killer cells infused within the graft have been correlated with better outcome in autologous transplant; recent studies showed increased mobilization of immune effectors with plerixafor compared with G-CSF, but further data are needed to clarify the clinical impact of these findings. [Bone Marrow Transpl] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
ADMA Biologics Announces Data to Be Presented
ADMA Biologics, Inc. announced its abstract titled “Pharmacokinetics of RI-002, an Investigational IGIV Preparation” will be presented. [Press release from ADMA Biologics, Inc. discussing research to be presented at the 2015 American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) Annual Meeting, Houston] Press Release

Generex Provides Update on Antigen Express Phase II AE37 Breast Cancer Vaccine Trial
Generex Biotechnology Corporation announced that results of the last pre-specified analysis of data from a Phase II study of a novel cancer vaccine designed to reduce the risk of relapse in patients who have had breast cancer corroborate qualitatively prior results from the primary analysis conducted in January of 2014. [Press release from Generex Biotechnology Corporation discussing research to be presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, Chicago] Press Release

IOmet Pharma Demonstrates Superior In Vivo PK/PD Properties in Pre-Clinical IDO, TDO and Dual IDO/TDO Cancer Immunotherapy Programs
IOmet Pharma presented data demonstrating superior pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) properties in its pre-clinical IDO, TDO and IDO/TDO Dual Inhibitor programs. [Press release from IOmet Pharma discussing research presented at the Keystone Tumor Immunology Symposium, Banff] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Kaul Foundation Donates $7 Million for UAB Personalized Medicine Institute
The Hugh Kaul Foundation has donated $7 million to the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) to establish the Hugh Kaul Personalized Medicine Institute at UAB. [University of Alabama at Birmingham] Press Release

Horizon Pharma plc Submits Investigational New Drug Application for ACTIMMUNE® in the Treatment of Friedreich’s Ataxia
Horizon Pharma plc announced it has submitted an Investigational New Drug application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for ACTIMMUNE in the treatment of Friedreich’s Ataxia. [Horizon Pharma plc] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW South Central Association of Blood Banks (SCABB) Mid-Atlantic Symposium: In Search of the Safe & Effective Transfusion
April 10, 2015
Annapolis, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Faculty Position – Immunology (The Lowance Center for Human Immunology at Emory University)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Senior Process Development Engineer (Sangamo BioSciences, Inc.)

Director – Vector Production (Sangamo BioSciences, Inc.)

Research Associate – Innate/Adaptive Immune Components in the Microenvironment of Basal-Like Breast Cancers (King’s College London)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy (United Arab Emirates University)

Manufacturing Scientists – Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy (Autolus)

Postdoctoral Position – Cancer-Related Inflammation (Institute of Human Genetics)

Senior Research Scientist – Immunohistochemistry (iTeos Therapeutics)

Research Scientist – Cancer Immunotherapy (iTeos Therapeutics)


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