Volume 2.45 | Dec 2

Human Immunology News 2.45 December 2, 2014
Human Immunology News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Experimental Ebola Vaccine Appears Safe, Prompts Immune Response
An experimental vaccine to prevent Ebola virus disease was well-tolerated and produced immune system responses in all 20 healthy adults who received it in a Phase I clinical trial. [Press release from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases discussing online prepublication in The New England Journal of Medicine] Press Release | Full Article
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
MPDL3280A (Anti-PD-L1) Treatment Leads to Clinical Activity in Metastatic Bladder Cancer
Researchers examined the anti-PD-L1 antibody MPDL3280A, a systemic cancer immunotherapy, for the treatment of metastatic urothelial bladder cancer. This Phase I expansion study, with an adaptive design that allowed for biomarker-positive enriched cohorts, demonstrated that tumors expressing PD-L1-positive tumor-infiltrating immune cells had particularly high response rates. [Nature] Abstract | Press Release

PD-1 Blockade Induces Responses by Inhibiting Adaptive Immune Resistance
Scientists show that pre-existing CD8+ T cells distinctly located at the invasive tumor margin are associated with expression of the programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand immune inhibitory axis and may predict response to therapy. [Nature] Abstract | Press Release

The Immunoreceptor TIGIT Regulates Antitumor and Antiviral CD8+ T Cell Effector Function
TIGIT is highly expressed on human and murine tumor-infiltrating T cells, and, in models of both cancer and chronic viral infection, antibody coblockade of TIGIT and PD-L1 synergistically and specifically enhanced CD8+ T cell effector function, resulting in significant tumor and viral clearance, respectively. [Cancer Cell]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Safety and Preliminary Evidence of Biologic Efficacy of a Mammaglobin-A DNA Vaccine in Patients with Stable Metastatic Breast Cancer
Fourteen subjects were treated with the mammaglobin-A DNA vaccine and no significant adverse events have been observed. Eight of 14 subjects were HLA-A2+, and the CD8 T-cell response to vaccination was studied in detail. [Clin Cancer Res] Abstract | Press Release

Intrathymic Tfh/B Cells Interaction Leads to Ectopic GCs Formation and Anti-AChR Antibody Production: Central Role in Triggering MG Occurrence
Researchers aimed to determine whether T follicular helper (Tfh)/B cell interaction exists in myasthenia gravis (MG) thymus and address its role in the ectopic germinal centers (GCs) formation and acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody production. [Mol Neurobiol] Abstract

The Tol2 Transposon System Mediates the Genetic Engineering of T-Cells with CD19-Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptors for B-Cell Malignancies
Scientists used the Tol2 transposon system to stably transfer CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor into human T-cells. Expanded CD3+ T-cells with stable and high-level transgene expression produced interferon-γ upon stimulation with CD19 and specifically lysed Raji cells, a CD19+ human B-cell lymphoma cell line. [Gene Ther] Abstract

Monomethyl Fumarate Augments NK Cell Lysis of Tumor Cells through Degranulation and the Upregulation of NKp46 and CD107a
Investigators examined the effects of dimethyl fumarate (DMF) and the DMF metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF) on various activities of natural killer (NK) cells. They demonstrate that MMF augments the primary CD56+, but not CD56, NK cell lysis of K562 and RAJI tumor cells. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

Activated Regulatory and Memory T-Cells Accumulate in Malignant Ascites from Ovarian Carcinoma Patients
Scientists conducted a detailed characterization of CD4+ T-cells, CD8+ T-cells and regulatory T-cell subsets in the peripheral blood and malignant ascites fluid from seventeen patients with ovarian carcinoma of epithelial origin. [Cancer Immunol Immunother] Abstract

Fingolimod Increases CD39-Expressing Regulatory T Cells in Multiple Sclerosis Patients
Investigators explored regulatory and inflammatory mechanisms activated in fingolimod treated multiple sclerosis patients. Fingolimod treatment increased mRNA levels of CD39, AHR and CYP1B1 but decreased mRNA expression of IL-17, IL-22 and FOXP3 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. [PLoS One] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Does the Microbiota Play a Role in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Diseases?
There is emerging literature on the role of the microbiota in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, with clear and increasing evidence that changes in the microbiota are associated with some of these diseases. This review summarizes the current status on the role of the microbiota in autoimmune diseases. [Gut] Abstract

The Role of Human Dendritic Cells in HIV-1 Infection
The authors summarize advances in the role of dendritic cells during HIV-1 infection and discuss their potential involvement in the development of preventive strategies against HIV-1 and other STIs. [J Invest Dermatol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Novartis Features Innovative Immunotherapy, Targeted Pipeline Treatment Combinations and Long-Term Data
Novartis will highlight more than 250 abstracts demonstrating advances in blood and breast cancer research. [Press release from Novartis AG discussing research to be presented at the 56th American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting, San Francisco, and the CTRC-AACR San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS), San Antonio] Press Release

New Data Strengthens Correlation between Biomarker and Cancer Immunotherapeutic Imprime PGG
Biothera will present data describing the presence and distribution of a biomarker that may predict the ability of subjects to respond to its immunotherapeutic Imprime PGG®. [Press release from Biothera discussing research to be presented at the AACR Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy: The Next Chapter, Orlando] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Atreca, Inc., Establishes Strategic Collaboration with Johnson & Johnson Innovation and Janssen to Apply Immune Repertoire Capture™ Technology to Autoimmune Disease
Atreca, Inc. announced that it has entered into a strategic collaboration with Janssen Biotech, Inc. in which the companies will apply Atreca’s Immune Repertoire Capture™ technology to autoimmune disease. [Atreca, Inc. (Business Wire)] Press Release

Imugene HER-Vaxx Peptides Demonstrate High Level of Activity in Preclinical Testing
Imugene Limited announced it has met another milestone in preclinical testing. The team at the Medical University of Vienna has shown that high HER-2-specific antibody levels have been generated using HER-Vaxx fusion peptide antigens, in preclinical testing, demonstrating that the HER-Vaxx fusion peptide antigens are strongly immunogenic. [Imugene Limited] Press Release

TapImmune Announces Phase II Clinical Trials Collaboration with VGTI Florida to Advance Breast and Ovarian Cancer Vaccines
TapImmune, Inc. announced a new collaborative research agreement with The Vaccine & Gene Therapy Institute of Florida (VGTI Florida), forming a partnership to advance TapImmune’s proprietary, cancer vaccines into Phase II human clinical trials for the treatment of breast and ovarian cancers. [TapImmune, Inc.] Press Release

Unum Therapeutics Announces Start of First Phase I Clinical Trial of Cellular Immunotherapy Targeting CD20+ Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Unum Therapeutics announced that recruitment has begun in the first clinical trial of the antibody-targeted tumor cell killing (ATTCK)20 therapy. [Unum Therapeutics] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Keystone Symposium – Immunity to Veterinary Pathogens: Informing Vaccine Development
January 20-25, 2015
Keystone, United States

NEW Gordon Research Conference: Phagocytes
May 31-June 5, 2015
Waterville Valley, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Investigator – Gut Mucosal Immunology Research (Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research)

NEW Senior Research Fellow – Immune Response in Aging/Persistent Infections (Singapore Immunology Network A*STAR)

NEW Faculty Position – Department of Microbiology and Immunology (Indiana Univeristy School of Medicine)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Mucosal Immunology (Karolinska Institute)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Hospital for Special Surgery)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Translational Medicine and Tumor Immunology (Medical University of Warsaw)

Head of Cellular and Molecular Therapies Laboratory (NHS Blood & Transplant)

Product Manager Global Marketing – Autoimmunity (Thermo Fisher Scientific)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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