Volume 2.39 | Oct 14

Human Immunology News 2.39 October 14, 2014
Human Immunology News
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Single Gene Links Susceptibility to Rare Infections with Predisposition to Autoimmune Disease
In previous research, investigators linked a lack of ISG15 to an unusual vulnerability to infections by mycobacteria, a group of common bacteria that include the TB bug. Using cells from patients, they found that when they restored the ISG15 gene, the cells became able to resolve inflammation. [Press release from The Rockefeller University discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
View Data: UM729, a Novel Small Molecule for Ex Vivo Expansion of Human hSCs
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
C-Type Lectin-Like Receptor LOX-1 Promotes Dendritic Cell-Mediated Class-Switched B Cell Responses
The authors report that lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) expressed on dendritic cells and B cells promotes humoral responses. On B cells LOX-1 signaling upregulated CCR7, promoting cellular migration toward lymphoid tissues. [Immunity] Abstract

Human TLR10 Is an Anti-Inflammatory Pattern-Recognition Receptor
The authors demonstrate that Toll-like receptor (TLR)10 is a modulatory receptor with mainly inhibitory effects. Blocking TLR10 by antagonistic antibodies enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production, including IL-1β, specifically after exposure to TLR2 ligands. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Central Domain of IL-33 Is Cleaved by Mast Cell Proteases for Potent Activation of Group-2 Innate Lymphoid Cells
Researchers investigated the role of mast cells known to interact with group-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in vivo. They found that serine proteases secreted by activated mast cells generate mature forms of interleukin-33 (IL-33) with potent activity on ILC2s. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

MHC Class I Loss Is a Frequent Mechanism of Immune Escape in Papillary Thyroid Cancer that Is Reversed by Interferon and Selumetinib Treatment In Vitro
Researchers evaluated major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression on papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and analyzed changes in MHC expression and associated immune activation with current and experimental treatments for thyroid cancer using in vitro PTC cell lines. Functional changes in antigenicity were assessed by co-culture of allogeneic donor peripheral blood leukocytes with pre-treated or untreated PTC cell lines and measurement of T cell activation and cytokine production. [Clin Cancer Res] Abstract

First-in-Man Study of Western Reserve Strain Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus: Safety, Systemic Spread and Anti-Tumor Activity
Investigators performed the first-in-human Phase I, intratumoral dose escalation clinical trial of the Western Reserve strain of vaccinia virus engineered for tumor selectivity through two targeted gene deletions (vvDD) in 16 patients with advanced solid tumors. In addition to safety, they evaluated signs of vvDD replication and spread to distant tumors, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, clinical and immune responses to vvDD. [Mol Ther] Abstract

Coordinated Regulation of NK Receptor Expression in the Maturing Human Immune System
Using mass cytometry, scientists found that natural killer cell receptor (NKR) expression patterns distinguish cell lineages in human peripheral blood. Mature NK and CD8+ T cell populations show increased diversity of NKR surface expression patterns, but with distinct determinants. [J Immunol] Abstract

Genetic Polymorphisms and Tissue Expression of Interleukin-22 Associated with Risk and Therapeutic Response of Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma
Investigators explored the genetic predisposition to mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and its clinical implication. In vitro experiments demonstrate that co-culturing peripheral mononuclear cells or CD4+ T cells with Helicobacter pylori stimulated the secretion of interleukin-22 (IL-22), and that IL-22 induced the expression of antimicrobial proteins, RegIIIα and lipocalin-2, in gastric epithelial cells. [Blood Cancer J]
Full Article

Cellular Immunologic Responses to Cochlear Implantation in the Human
Histologic evidence of a foreign body reaction has been described in temporal bones in patients who in life had undergone cochlear implantation. The cellular immune response was characterized using immunohistochemical stains for B-cell lymphocytes, T-cell lymphocytes, and macrophages. [Hear Res] Abstract

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IRAK Signaling in Cancer
In some malignancies, dysregulation of inflammatory toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 receptor (IL1R) signaling is typified by increased NF-κB activity, and it occurs through somatic mutations, chromosomal deletions, and/or transcriptional deregulation. Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) family members are mediators of TLR/IL1R superfamily signaling, and mounting evidence implicates these kinases as viable cancer targets. [Br J Cancer] Full Article

Translational Research in Oncology – 10 Years of Progress and Future Prospects
The authors review selected developments in translational cancer biology, diagnostics, and therapeutics that have occurred over the past decade and offer our thoughts on future prospects for the next few years.
[Nat Rev Clin Oncol]

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.
Amgen Announces Positive Top-Line Results From Phase III Study Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of Biosimilar Candidate ABP 501 Compared with Adalimumab in Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Plaque Psoriasis
Amgen announced its Phase III study evaluating efficacy and safety of biosimilar candidate ABP 501 compared with Humira® (adalimumab) in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis met its primary endpoint. [Amgen Inc.] Press Release

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Johns Hopkins Pediatrician Wins NIH Transformative Research Award
Johns Hopkins Children’s Center infectious disease specialist Sanjay Jain, M.D., has earned a Transformative Research Award from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for his ongoing work to design a new noninvasive imaging method that can rapidly identify a wide variety of bacterial infections and monitor their response to treatment in real time. [Johns Hopkins University] Press Release

Dynavax Initiates Phase I/II Study of TLR-9 Agonist Immunotherapy in B-Cell Lymphoma
Dynavax Technologies Corporation announced initiation of a Phase I/II clinical trial to assess the safety and preliminary efficacy of SD-101, an investigational Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 agonist, in adults with untreated low-grade B-cell lymphoma. [Dynavax Technologies Corporation] Press Release

University of Maryland School of Medicine and Malian Ministry of Health Begin Human Trials of Experimental Ebola Vaccine in Mali, West Africa
The Center for Vaccine Development in conjunction with its sister institution, The Center for Vaccine Development of Mali and the Ministry of Health of Mali, have begun a clinical trial in health care workers (and other front-line workers) to evaluate a promising experimental Ebola vaccine. [University of Maryland School of Medicine] Press Release

VGTI Florida Launches the Center for Diseases of Aging to Develop Innovative Treatments for a Broad Range of Difficult-to-Treat Diseases
The Vaccine & Gene Therapy Institute of Florida (VGTI Florida) announced the launch of its Center for Diseases of Aging, a major initiative to accelerate the discovery and advancement of novel, best-in-class healthcare interventions for the prevention and treatment of diseases commonly associated with aging. [Vaccine & Gene Therapy Institute of Florida] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Immune Homeostasis and Inflammatory Disease: A Herrenhausen Symposium
November 6-8, 2014
Hanover, Germany

NEW Cell Symposia: The Multifaceted Roles of Type 2 Immunity
December 10-12, 2014
Bruges, Belgium

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
NEW Professorship Position – Virology (Medical University of Vienna)

NEW PhD Position – Childhood Respiratory Virus Infections and Development of Asthma (Norwegian University of Science and Technology)

Faculty Positions – Immunology (Nanjing Medical University)

Senior Research Fellow – Immunosenescence and Immune Exhaustion in Persistent Infections and Aging (Singapore Immunology Network A*STAR)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Interleukin 23 in the Pathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Beth Israel Medical Center)

Research Scientist – Immunology (Beijing Genomics Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Immunology (Huazhong University of Science and Technology)

Postdoctoral Position – Transplantation Aspects of Hepatocytes Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells (INSERM UMR 1064 )

Postdoctoral Position – Human Mucosal Immunology (INSERM)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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