Volume 2.37 | Sep 30

Human Immunology News 2.37 September 30, 2014
Human Immunology News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Epigenetic Programming of Monocyte-to-Macrophage Differentiation and Trained Innate Immunity
Purified circulating monocytes from healthy volunteers were differentiated under the homeostatic macrophage colony-stimulating factor concentrations present in human serum. During the first 24 hours, trained immunity was induced by β-glucan priming, and postsepsis immunoparalysis was mimicked by exposure to lipopolysaccharide, generating endotoxin-induced tolerance. [Science] Abstract | Press Release
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
The Immune Microenvironment Confers Resistance to MAPK Pathway Inhibitors through Macrophage-Derived TNFα
Researchers identified macrophage-derived TNFα as a crucial melanoma growth factor that provides resistance to MAPK pathway inhibitors through the lineage transcription factor MITF (microphthalmia transcription factor). In BRAF-mutant melanomas of patients and BRAFV600E melanoma allografts, MAPK pathway inhibitors increased the number of tumor-associated macrophages, and TNFα and MITF expression. [Cancer Discov]
Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

Clinical Recovery from Surgery Correlates with Single-Cell Immune Signatures
Single-cell mass cytometry was applied to serial whole-blood samples from 32 patients undergoing hip replacement to comprehensively characterize the phenotypic and functional immune response to surgical trauma. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

Human B Cells Promote T-Cell Plasticity to Optimize Antibody Response by Inducing Coexpression of TH1/TFH Signatures
CD4+ T-cell differentiation by primary human B cells was investigated in in vitro cocultures by using tetanus toxoid and Salmonella species as antigen models. T-cell differentiation was assessed by using intracellular cytokines and subset-specific transcription factors and markers. [J Allergy Clin Immunol] Abstract

IL-10-Overexpressing B Cells Regulate Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses
Researchers investigated the effects of IL-10 overexpression on the phenotype and immunoregulatory capacity of B cells. Primary human B cells were transfected with hIL-10, and IL-10-overexpressing B cells were characterized for cytokine and immunoglobulin production by means of specific ELISA and bead-based assays. [J Allergy Clin Immunol] Abstract

β-Cell-Specific CD8 T Cell Phenotype in Type 1 Diabetes Reflects Chronic Autoantigen Exposure
Investigators found that β-cell-specific CD8 T cell frequencies in peripheral blood were similar between patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes and healthy controls. In contrast to healthy controls, however, patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes displayed hallmarks of antigen-driven expansion uniquely within the β-cell-specific CD8 T cell compartment. [Diabetes] Abstract

Human Gastric Epithelial Cells Contribute to Gastric Immune Regulation by Providing Retinoic Acid to Dendritic Cells
Researchers analyzed whether retinoic acid (RA), an important homeostatic factor in the small intestinal mucosa, also contributes to gastric immune regulation. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

In Vitro TNF Blockade Enhances Ex Vivo Expansion of Regulatory T Cells in Patients with Immune Thrombocytopenia
Investigators raise the possibility that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) blockers, through their ability to increase regulatory T cell proliferation, may be efficacious in immune thrombocytopenia patients. [Br J Haematol] Abstract

CD25+Bcl6low T Follicular Helper Cells Provide Help to Maturing B Cells in Germinal Centers of Human Tonsil
Investigators purified T:B-cell conjugates from tonsils and found they were enriched for the CD25+Bcl6low T follicular helper cell subpopulation. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

Recombinant Ad35 Adenoviral Proteins as Potent Modulators of Human T Cell Activation
Researchers investigated the effect of recombinant proteins derived from the fiber knob of the adenovirus serotype 35 (Ad35) that uses CD46 as its entry receptor, on human T cell activation. [Immunology] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Location, Location, Location: Functional and Phenotypic Heterogeneity between Tumor-Infiltrating and Non-Infiltrating Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells
The authors provide an overview of the data available on the phenotypical and functional differences between tumor-derived myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and MDSCs isolated from the spleen of tumor-bearing mice or from the peripheral blood of cancer patients. [OncoImmunology] Abstract | Full Article

Dendritic Cells and Macrophages in the Kidney: A Spectrum of Good and Evil
The authors discuss the common and distinct characteristics of dendritic cells and macrophages, as well as key advances that have identified the renal-specific functions of these important phagocytic, antigen-presenting cells, and their roles in potentiating or mitigating intrinsic kidney disease. [Nat Rev Nephrol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.

European Antibody Congress 2014
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Merck Announces First Presentation of Early Data on the Investigational Use of KEYTRUDA® (Pembrolizumab) in Patients with Advanced Bladder Cancer
Merck announced the first presentation of data on the investigational use of KEYTRUDA®, the company’s anti-PD-1 therapy, in PD-L1 positive, advanced urothelial cancer. [Press release from Merck & Co. discussing research presented at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) 2014 Congress, Madrid] Press Release

Nivolumab Shows Signs of Superior Response Rate Compared to Standard Chemotherapy in Advanced Melanoma
The monoclonal antibody nivolumab achieves superior response rates and a longer duration of response than standard chemotherapy in patients whose melanoma has progressed after treatment with ipilimumab. [Press release from the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) discussing research presented at the ESMO 2014 Congress, Madrid] Press Release

Medigene Presentation at PIVAC Conference
The poster presentation entitled “Evaluation of a new generation dendritic cell-based vaccine for treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer” shows preclinical data on Medigene’s immunotherapeutic DC vaccine program. [Press release from Medigene AG discussing research presented at the 14th International Conference on Progress in Vaccination against Cancer (PIVAC), Rome] Press Release | Abstract

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Pfizer and Kyowa Hakko Kirin to Collaborate on Immuno-Oncology Combination Study
Pfizer Inc. and Kyowa Hakko Kirin announced that they have entered into an agreement to explore the therapeutic potential of the combination of Pfizer’s PF-05082566, an investigational, fully humanized monoclonal antibody that stimulates signaling through 4-1BB with Kyowa Hakko Kirin’s anti-CCR4 antibody mogamulizumab in a Phase Ib clinical study evaluating the safety and tolerability of the combination in patients with solid tumors. [Pfizer Inc.] Press Release

UC San Diego Part of New Effort to Fight Autoimmune Disorders
The Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine has been named a key site in a national, multi-institution, multi-year $41.6 million program to speed drug discovery, development, diagnostics and therapies for patients with autoimmune disorders, primarily rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and lupus erythematosus, which affect millions of Americans. [UC San Diego] Press Release

European Medicines Agency Validates the Marketing Authorization Application for Nivolumab in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company announced that the European Medicines Agency has validated for review the Marketing Authorization Application for nivolumab in non-small cell lung cancer, the first completed regulatory submission for a PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor in this tumor type. [Bristol-Myers Squibb Company] Press Release

Opexa Strengthens Patent Portfolio with Expansion into B-Cell Diseases and Announces Allowance of 98th T-Cell Patent
Opexa Therapeutics, Inc. announced the expansion of its intellectual property portfolio. Additionally, Opexa is expanding its IP protection to cover B-cell mediated diseases in connection with its recently announced development program in Neuromyelitis Optica. [Opexa Therapeutics, Inc.] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Keystone Symposium – Cell Death Signaling in Cancer and the Immune System
October 28-November 2, 2014
Sao Paulo, Brazil

NEW Keystone Symposium – PI 3-Kinase Signaling Pathways in Disease
January 13-18, 2015
Vancouver, Canada

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immunometabolism (INSERM)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Tumor Immunology (INSERM)

Senior Research Fellow – Immunosenescence and Immune Exhaustion in Persistent Infections and Aging (Singapore Immunology Network A*STAR)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Interleukin 23 in the Pathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Beth Israel Medical Center)

Research Scientist – Immunology (Beijing Genomics Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Immunology (Huazhong University of Science and Technology)

Postdoctoral Position – Transplantation Aspects of Hepatocytes Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells (INSERM UMR 1064 )

Postdoctoral Position – Human Mucosal Immunology (INSERM)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Molecular Aspects of Autoimmunity (Singapore Immunology Network A*STAR)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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