Volume 2.36 | Sep 23

Human Immunology News 2.36 September 23, 2014
Human Immunology News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Newborns Have Stronger Immunity than First Thought
Investigators discovered that whilst T cells in newborn babies are largely different to those in adults, it is not because they are immunosuppressed; rather, they manufacture a potent anti-bacterial molecule known as IL8 that has not previously been considered a major product of T cells, and that activates neutrophils to attack the body’s foreign invaders. [Press release from King’s College London discussing online prepublication in Nature Medicine] Press Release | Abstract
How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Metabolic Dysfunction Drives a Mechanistically Distinct Proinflammatory Phenotype in Adipose Tissue Macrophages
Using a proteomics approach, researchers show that markers of classical activation are absent on adipose tissue macrophages from obese humans but are readily detectable on airway macrophages of patients with cystic fibrosis. They identify PPARγ and p62/SQSTM1 as two key proteins that promote lipid metabolism and limit inflammation in metabolically activated macrophages. [Cell Metab] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Anti-CTLA-4 Therapy Broadens the Melanoma-Reactive CD8+ T Cell Response
It is unclear whether anti-CTLA-4 treatment amplifies previously induced T cell responses or whether it induces new tumor-specific T cell reactivities. Using a combination ultraviolet-induced peptide exchange and peptide-major histocompatibility complex combinatorial coding, scientists monitored immune reactivity against a panel of 145 melanoma-associated epitopes in a cohort of patients receiving anti-CTLA-4 treatment. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract

Enhanced Natural Killer-Cell and T-Cell Responses to Influenza A Virus during Pregnancy
Although some data suggest that natural killer- and T-cell responses are suppressed during pregnancy, influenza-specific responses have not been previously evaluated. Investigators analyzed the responses of women that were pregnant versus those that were not immediately before inactivated influenza vaccination, seven days after vaccination, and six weeks postpartum. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Regulation of T Cell Proliferation by JMJD6 and PDGF-BB during Chronic Hepatitis B Infection
Scientists demonstrate that jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (JMJD6) is a potential regulator of T cell proliferation during chronic hepatitis B virus infection. The expression of JMJD6 was reduced in T lymphocytes in chronic hepatitis B patients, and this reduction in JMJD6 expression was associated with impaired T cell proliferation. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Expression of Coinhibitory Receptors on T Cells in the Microenvironment of Usual Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia Is Related to Proinflammatory Effector T Cells and an Increased Recurrence-Free Survival
Scientists show that the vulva constitutes an area intensely surveyed by CD8+, CD4+, Tbet+ and regulatory T cell populations, parts of which express examined coinhibitory molecules. In usual-type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia especially, the number of regulatory T cells and TIM3+ T cells increased. [Int J Cancer] Abstract

Expression and DNA Methylation of TNF, IFNG and FOXP3 in Colorectal Cancer and Their Prognostic Significance
Colorectal cancer (CRC) progression is associated with suppression of host cell-mediated immunity and local immune escape mechanisms. Scientists assessed the immune function in terms of expression of TNF, IFNG and FOXP3 in CRC. [Br J Cancer] Full Article

In Situ Immune Response in Human Chromoblastomycosis – A Possible Role for Regulatory and Th17 T Cells
The cellular immune response in the severe form of chromoblastomycosis seems to correlate with a Th2 pattern of cytokines. The humoral immune response also seems to play a role. Investigators intended to explore the populations of regulatory T cells and the Th17 pattern. [PLoS Negl Trop Dis] Full Article

Sequential Immune Monitoring in Patients with Melanoma and Renal Cell Carcinoma Treated with High-Dose Interleukin-2: Immune Patterns and Correlation with Outcome
Researchers hypothesized that changes in T cell subset distribution in patients undergoing interleukin (IL)-2 therapy may correlate with treatment outcomes. Changes in distribution and phenotype of circulating CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte subsets were compared based on cancer types and intra-patient during the course of the IL-2 therapy. [Cancer Immunol Immunother] Abstract

Clinical Cell Therapy Imaging Using a Perfluorocarbon Tracer and Fluorine-19 MRI
To accelerate clinical translation, noninvasive imaging of cell grafts in clinical trials can potentially be used to assess the initial delivery and behavior of cells. This technology was used to detect immunotherapeutic dendritic cells delivered to colorectal adenocarcinoma patients. [Magn Reson Med] Full Article | Press Release

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REVIEWS
The Role of Airway Epithelial Cells and Innate Immune Cells in Chronic Respiratory Disease
The authors summarize the innate immune mechanisms by which airway epithelial cells and innate immune cells regulate the development of chronic respiratory diseases. They also explain how these pathways are being targeted in the clinic to treat patients with these diseases. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

Development, Differentiation, and Diversity of Innate Lymphoid Cells
Recent evidence suggests that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) can be grouped into two separate lineages, cytotoxic ILCs represented by conventional natural killer cells and cytokine-producing helper-like ILCs. The authors focus on current work in humans and mice that has identified core transcriptional circuitry required for the commitment of lymphoid progenitors to the ILC lineage. [Immunity] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Immunicum Presents Updated Survival Data for INTUVAX-Treated Renal Cancer Patients
Immunicum AB announced that updated survival data from a completed Phase I/II study of INTUVAX was presented. The therapeutic cancer vaccine INTUVAX was evaluated in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer. [Press release from Immunicum AB discussing research presented at the 3rd Annual Cancer Vaccines Conference, London] Press Release

From our sponsor: Learn how ex vivo models drive progress in HIV research. Read the research profiles.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
New Research Collaborations and Additional Grant for Immunotherapy TABs
Medigene AG announced that its subsidiary Trianta Immunotherapies GmbH entered two new research collaborations for further development of its immunotherapy platform TABs (T-cell-specific antibodies) for the treatment of various types of cancer and autoimmune diseases. [Medigene AG] Press Release

Boehringer Ingelheim and CureVac Announce Collaboration to Develop Next Generation Lung Cancer Immunotherapy
Boehringer Ingelheim and CureVac jointly announced an exclusive global license and development collaboration. The new collaboration focuses on CureVac’s CV9202, a novel investigational therapeutic mRNA vaccine, in early clinical development for the treatment of lung cancer. [Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH] Press Release

Inovio Pharmaceuticals Expands HPV Immunotherapy Development to Aerodigestive Cancers
Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced it has initiated a Phase I clinical trial in patients with aerodigestive cancers. The trial will evaluate the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of INO-3106. [Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

Amgen Submits Biologics License Application for Investigational BiTE® Immunotherapy Blinatumomab
Amgen announced submission of a Biologics License Application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration seeking approval for its investigational bispecific T cell engager (BiTE®) antibody construct, blinatumomab. [Amgen, Inc.] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Immunogenicity and Bioassay Summit 2014
November 17-19, 2014
Bethesda, United States

NEW CellTech India 2015
March 2-3, 2015
Bangalore, India

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Tumor Immunology (INSERM)

Senior Research Fellow – Immunosenescence and Immune Exhaustion in Persistent Infections and Aging (Singapore Immunology Network A*STAR)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Interleukin 23 in the Pathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Beth Israel Medical Center)

Research Scientist – Immunology (Beijing Genomics Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Immunology (Huazhong University of Science and Technology)

Postdoctoral Position – Transplantation Aspects of Hepatocytes Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells (INSERM UMR 1064 )

Postdoctoral Position – Human Mucosal Immunology (INSERM)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Molecular Aspects of Autoimmunity (Singapore Immunology Network A*STAR)

Senior Manager – Inflammation, Fibrosis Biomarkers (Gilead Sciences)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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