Volume 2.33 | Sep 2

Human Immunology News 2.33 September 2, 2014
Human Immunology News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Malaria’s Clinical Symptoms Fade on Repeat Infections Due to Loss of Immune Cells
Scientists found that a depletion of gamma delta T cells diminishes inflammatory responses in malaria-infected children – responses that when unabated can become debilitating or deadly. [Press release from UCSF discussing online prepublication in Science Translational Medicine] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
A TNFSF15 Disease-Risk Polymorphism Increases Pattern-Recognition Receptor-Induced Signaling through Caspase-8-Induced IL-1
Investigators found that human macrophages expressed death receptor 3 (DR3) and that tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 15 (TNFSF15):DR3 interactions were critical for amplifying pattern-recognition-receptor-initiated MAPK/NF-κB/PI3K signaling and cytokine secretion in macrophages. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Hepatic Macrophage Activation and the LPS Pathway in Patients with Alcoholic Hepatitis: A Prospective Cohort Study
Scientists measured the plasma concentrations of soluble CD163 (a specific marker of inflammatory macrophage activation) and the expression of CD163 in liver tissue by immunohistochemistry and stereology of liver biopsies. [Am J Gastroenterol] Abstract

Th17-Type Cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α Synergistically Activate STAT3 and NF-κB to Promote Colorectal Cancer Cell Growth
Scientists isolated tumor-infiltrating leukocytes (TILs) and lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) from the tumor area and the macroscopically unaffected, adjacent, colonic mucosa of patients who underwent resection for sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) and show that the culture supernatants of TILs, but not of LPMCs, potently enhance the growth of human CRC cell lines through the activation of the oncogenic transcription factors signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). [Oncogene] Full Article

Anti-CD22 90Y-Epratuzumab Tetraxetan Combined with Anti-CD20 Veltuzumab: A Phase I Study in Patients with Relapsed/Refractory, Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Investigators combined radioimmunotherapy with immunotherapy targeting different B-cell antigens. They evaluated anti-CD22 90Y-epratuzumab tetraxetan with anti-CD20 veltuzumab in patients with aggressive lymphoma who had failed at least one prior standard treatment, but had not undergone stem cell transplant. [Haematologica] Abstract | Full Article

The RING Ubiquitin E3 RNF114 Interacts with A20 and Modulates NF-κB Activity and T-Cell Activation
Investigators identify the RING-type zinc-finger protein 114 (RNF114) as an A20-interacting factor. RNF114 interacts with A20 in T cells and modulates A20 ubiquitylation. They demonstrate that in T cells, the effect of RNF114 is linked to the modulation of T-cell activation and apoptosis but is independent of cell cycle regulation. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Presence of Antigen-Experienced T Cells with Low Grade of Differentiation and Proliferative Potential in Chronic Chagas Disease Myocarditis
Researchers explored the expression of inhibitory receptors, transcription factors of type 1 or regulatory T cells, and markers of T cell differentiation, immunosenescence or active cell cycle in cardiac explants from patients with advanced Chagas disease myocarditis. [PLoS Negl Trop Dis] Full Article

Soluble Interleukin-6 Receptor Is Elevated during Influenza A Virus Infection and Mediates the IL-6 and IL-32 Inflammatory Cytokine Burst
Researchers show that influenza A virus infection stimulates the expression of the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), a multifunctional protein involved in IL-6 signaling. sIL-6R expression upregulated the levels of its own ligand, IL-6 and those of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-32. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

Decreased Expression of MicroRNA-21 Correlates with the Imbalance of Th17 and Treg Cells in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis
Investigators speculate that microRNA (miR)-21 may be part of a negative feedback loop. However, miR-21 levels decrease significantly in rheumatoid arthritis patients, suggesting that this feedback loop is dysregulated and may contribute to the imbalance of Th17 and Treg cells. [J Cell Mol Med] Abstract | Full Article

The Dynamic Relationship between Innate Immune Biomarkers and Interferon-Based Treatment Effects and Outcome in Hepatitis C Virus Infection Is Altered by Telaprevir
Investigators retrospectively studied soluble CD14 and IL-18 over the course of interferon-based treatment of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection, with the aim to investigate the impact of direct-acting antivirals on the dynamics and relationships between these biomarkers and treatment effects and outcome. [PLoS One]
Full Article

Involvement of Toll-Like Receptors on Helicobacter pylori-Induced Immunity
During H. pylori infection, toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been shown to be important to control cytokine response particularly in murine dendritic cells (DCs). Scientists analyzed the effect of blocking TLRs on human DCs. [PLoS One] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Role and Therapeutic Value of Dendritic Cells in Central Nervous System Autoimmunity
The authors discuss the role and therapeutic value of dendritic cells in autoimmune diseases, with a special focus on multiple sclerosis. [Cell Death Differ] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Researchers Receive $3.4 Million to Study Experimental Drug Combination in HIV
Researchers have received a $3.4 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to study an experimental drug combination that appears to rid white blood cells of HIV and keep the infection in check for long periods. [University of Rochester Medical Center] Press Release

TxCell Granted Five New Patents in Major Global Territories for Core Technology and ASTrIA Platform since January 2014
TxCell SA announced that five new patents for their technologies have been issued in the Unites States, Asia and Australia since the beginning of 2014. The most recent patent is for the TxCell method of assessing the efficacy of an antigen-specific Type 1 regulatory T cell therapy in a patient. [TxCell SA] Press Release

NIH to Launch Human Safety Study of Ebola Vaccine Candidate
​Initial human testing of an investigational vaccine to prevent Ebola virus disease will begin next week by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). The early-stage trial will begin initial human testing of a vaccine co-developed by NIAID and GlaxoSmithKline and will evaluate the experimental vaccine’s safety and ability to generate an immune system response in healthy adults. [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases] Press Release

MVI Vaccine to Be Used in Clinical Trial of a New Combination Approach to Immunotherapy Funded by The Prostate Cancer Foundation and The Movember Foundation
Madison Vaccines Incorporated said its lead product candidate MVI-816 will be used in a clinical trial testing a two-pronged immunotherapy approach to treat metastatic prostate cancer. [Madison Vaccines Incorporated] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Clinical Applications of Stem Cells (CASC) 2015
February 26-27, 2015
Singapore, Singapore

NEW BIT’s 8th Annual World Cancer Congress (WCC-2015)
May 15-17, 2015
Beijing, China

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Transplantation Aspects of Hepatocytes Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells (INSERM UMR 1064 )

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Human Mucosal Immunology (INSERM)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Molecular Aspects of Autoimmunity (Singapore Immunology Network A*STAR)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Pathways/Targets in the Blood Transcriptome of Human Tuberculosis (Medical Research Council)

Postdoctoral Position – Macrophage Functions (Cochin Institute)

Senior Manager – Inflammation, Fibrosis Biomarkers (Gilead Sciences)

Professor – Medicine, Microbiology and Immunobiology (Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard)

Postdoctoral Position – Human Heart Transplantation Immunology (Columbia University)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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