Volume 2.32 | Aug 26

Human Immunology News 2.32 August 26, 2014
Human Immunology News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
How to Rejuvenate Aging Immune Cells
Scientists show that p38 MAPK is activated by low nutrient levels, coupled with signals associated with age, or senescence, within the cell. They also suggest that the function of old T lymphocytes could be reconstituted by blocking one of several molecules involved in the process. [Press release from University College London discussing online prepublication in Nature Immunology] Press Release | Abstract | Video
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Chemotherapy-Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma and Indolent B-Cell Malignancies Can Be Effectively Treated with Autologous T Cells Expressing an Anti-CD19 Chimeric Antigen Receptor
T cells can be genetically modified to express an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). Investigators assessed the safety and efficacy of administering autologous anti-CD19 CAR T cells to patients with advanced CD19+ B-cell malignancies. [J Clin Oncol] Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

Diversity and Clonal Selection in the Human T-Cell Repertoire
Scientists used next-generation sequencing and nonparametric statistical analysis to estimate a lower bound for the total number of different T-cell receptor beta (TCRB) sequences in human repertoires. They arrived at surprisingly high minimal estimates of 100 million unique TCRB sequences in naïve CD4 and CD8 T-cell repertoires of young adults. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Induction of Broadly Cross-Reactive Antibody Responses to the Influenza HA Stem Region following H5N1 Vaccination in Humans
Human broadly neutralizing antibodies directed against highly conserved epitopes in the stem region of influenza virus HA have been recently characterized. However, it remains unknown what the baseline levels are of antibodies and memory B cells that are directed against these conserved epitopes. It is also not known to what extent anti-HA stem B-cell responses get boosted in humans after seasonal influenza vaccination. The authors address these two outstanding questions. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Tr-1-Like CD4+CD25CD127-/lowFOXP3 Cells Are the Main Source of Interleukin 10 in Patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Due to Leishmania braziliensis
Researchers show that the main sources of interleukin 10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. braziliensis are CD4+CD25CD127-/lowFOXP3 cells. [J Infect Dis] Abstract

The Regulatory Effect of UL-16 Binding Protein-3 Expression on the Cytotoxicity of NK Cells in Cancer Patients
Scientists investigated the effect of UL16-binding protein 3 (ULBP3) expression on the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells. High expression of ULBP3 on the cell surface of tumor cells augmented NK group 2, member D-mediated NK cell cytotoxicity. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Circulating Mucosal Associated Invariant T Cells Are Activated in Vibrio cholerae O1 Infection and Associated with Lipopolysaccharide Antibody Responses
Researchers found that blood mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are activated during cholera, and that in children, blood MAIT cells are decreased in number during the course of disease. They also found that the MAIT cell response correlates with the antibody response to V. cholerae O1 lipopolysaccharide, which in the past has been shown to be an important determinant of protection. [PLoS Negl Trop Dis] Full Article

Characterization of CD8+CD57+ T Cells in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction
Although T cells are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease, it is unclear which subpopulation of T cells contributes to pathogenesis in acute myocardial infarction (MI). Investigators studied the immunological characteristics and clinical impact of CD8+CD57+ T cells in acute MI patients. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

Monitoring the Initiation and Kinetics of Human Dendritic Cell-Induced Polarization of Autologous Naive CD4+ T Cells
Scientists developed a TCR-restricted assay to compare different pathogen-triggered human dendritic cells (DCs) for their capacities to instruct functional differentiation of autologous, naive CD4+ T cells. They demonstrate that this methodology can be applied to compare differently matured DC in terms of kinetics, direction, and magnitude of the naive CD4+ T cell response. [PLoS One] Full Article

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REVIEWS
The Immunology of Human Cytomegalovirus Latency: Could Latent Infection be Cleared by Novel Immunotherapeutic Strategies?
Understanding latency and why latently infected cells appear to be immunoprivileged is crucial for an understanding of the pathogenesis of human cytomegalovirus and may help to design strategies to eliminate latent virus reservoirs, at least in certain clinical settings. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

IL-6 Biology: Implications for Clinical Targeting in Rheumatic Disease
The authors cover novel, emerging aspects of the biology of IL-6, which might lead to more specific blockade of IL-6 signaling without compromising the protective function of this cytokine in the body’s defense against infections. [Nat Rev Rheumatol] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Lilly’s Ixekizumab Superior to Etanercept and Placebo in Phase III Psoriasis Studies
Eli Lilly and Company’s investigational medicine ixekizumab was statistically superior to etanercept and placebo on all skin clearance measures in Phase III studies, the company said, disclosing top-line results from its pivotal UNCOVER studies in moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. [Eli Lilly and Company] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
OMRF Receives $14.5 Million Grant to Continue Anthrax Studies
The National Institutes of Health has awarded Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation (OMRF) a five-year, $14.5 million grant to continue its research on anthrax and the bacteria’s effects on humans. [Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation] Press Release

Houston Methodist Researchers Using NIH Grant to Examine Molecular Basis of Transplant Rejection
Transplant immunologists at the Houston Methodist Research Institute will receive about $1.6 million over four years from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to study pathological antibodies produced from activated memory B cells during the chronic rejection of organ transplants. [Houston Methodist] Press Release

Advaxis and Merck Form Collaboration to Evaluate Investigational Combination of Two Novel Immunotherapy Candidates for Advanced Prostate Cancer
Advaxis, Inc. has entered into a clinical trial collaboration agreement with Merck to evaluate the combination of Advaxis’s Lm-LLO cancer immunotherapy, ADXS-PSA, with Merck’s investigational anti PD-1 antibody, pembrolizumab. [Advaxis, Inc.] Press Release

FDA Allows Marketing of First ZnT8Ab Autoantibody Test to Help Diagnose Type 1 Diabetes
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allowed marketing of the first zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8Ab) test that can help determine if a person has Type 1 diabetes and not another type of diabetes. [The U.S. Food and Drug Administration] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Cytokines Down Under 2014
October 26-29, 2014
Melbourne, Australia

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Molecular Aspects of Autoimmunity (Singapore Immunology Network A*STAR)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Pathways/Targets in the Blood Transcriptome of Human Tuberculosis (Medical Research Council)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Host-Fungal Interactions (University of Birmingham)

Postdoctoral Position – Macrophage Functions (Cochin Institute)

Senior Manager – Inflammation, Fibrosis Biomarkers (Gilead Sciences)

Professor – Medicine, Microbiology and Immunobiology (Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard)

Postdoctoral Position – Human Heart Transplantation Immunology (Columbia University)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Human Immunology (University of Pennsylvania)

Principal Investigator Positions – Systems & Synthetic Biology (Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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