Volume 2.31 | Aug 19

Human Immunology News 2.31 August 19, 2014
Human Immunology News
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TOP STORY
Natural (Born) Killer Cells Battle Pediatric Leukemia
Researchers have shown that a select team of immune-system cells from patients with leukemia can be multiplied in the lab, creating an army of natural killer cells that can be used to destroy the cancer cells. [Press release from Children’s Hospital Los Angeles discussing online prepublication in Leukemia]
Press Release |  Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
A Human Immunodeficiency Caused by Mutations in the PIK3R1 Gene
Scientists identified two different heterozygous splice site mutations that affect the same splice site in PIK3R1, which encodes the p85α subunit of PI3K. The hypothetical loss of p85α-mediated inhibition of p110 activity was supported by elevated phosphorylation of the known downstream signaling kinase AKT in patient T cell blasts. [J Clin Invest] Full Article

Identification of a Human Neonatal Immune-Metabolic Network Associated with Bacterial Infection
A system-level investigation of neonatal systemic responses to infection shows a surprisingly strong but unbalanced homeostatic immune response; developing an elevated set-point of myeloid regulatory signaling and sugar-lipid metabolism with concomitant inhibition of lymphoid responses. [Nat Commun] Full Article

In Vivo Attenuation and Genetic Evolution of a ST247-SCCmecI MRSA Clone after 13 Years of Pathogenic Bronchopulmonary Colonization in a Patient with Cystic Fibrosis: Implications of the Innate Immune Response
Investigators tracked the 13-year evolution of a single methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone in a male patient with cystic fibrosis, evaluating both the host immunogenic response and the microbial variations. The immunogenicity of initial and evolved isolates was evaluated by incubation with innate immune cells from healthy volunteers. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

PIM1 Kinase Phosphorylates the Human Transcription Factor FOXP3 at Serine 422 to Negatively Regulate Its Activity under Inflammation
Previous reports have suggested that human CD4+CD25hiFOXP3+ T regulatory cells have functional plasticity and may differentiate into effector T cells under inflammation. Researchers identified residue S422 of human FOXP3 as a phosphorylation site that regulates its function, which is not present in murine Foxp3. [J Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article

A MicroRNA Profile of Human CD8+ Regulatory T Cells and Characterization of the Effects of MicroRNAs on Treg Cell-Associated Genes
Researchers investigated the microRNA expression profile of human natural CD8+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and the impact of microRNAs on molecules associated with immune regulation. [J Transl Med] Full Article

FOXP3 and CTLA4 Overexpression in Multiple Myeloma Bone Marrow as a Sign of Accumulation of CD4+ T Regulatory Cells
Scientists characterized the expression of regulatory T- and T-helper-17-related genes in total myeloma bone marrow samples to assess their role as biomarkers, prognostic factors, and possible therapeutic targets in this incurable disease. [Cancer Immunol Immunother] Abstract | Full Article

Inhibition of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (ABCG2) in Human Myeloid Dendritic Cells Induces Potent Tolerogenic Functions during LPS Stimulation
Scientists demonstrate that inhibition of efflux transporters ABCG2 induced the generation of tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) from human peripheral blood myeloid DCs (mDCs). ABCG2 expression was present in mDCs and was further increased by LPS stimulation. [PLoS One] Full Article

Immunotoxicity Assessment of Rice-Derived Recombinant Human Serum Albumin Using Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
To assess the risk potential of human serum albumin (HSA) derived from Oryza sativa (OsrHSA) before a first-in-human trial, researchers compared OsrHSA and plasma-derived HSA, evaluating the potential for an immune reaction and toxicity using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. [PLoS One] Full Article

Decreased Percentage of CD4+Foxp3+TGF-β+ and Increased Percentage of CD4+IL-17+ Cells in Bronchoalveolar Lavage of Asthmatics
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways with the proven role of Th2 cells in its pathogenesis. The role and characteristics of different subsets of CD4+ cells are much less known. Investigators analyzed the incidence of different subsets of CD4+ T cells, in particular different subsets of CD4+ cells with the co-expression of different cytokines. [J Inflamm] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells and Their Applications in Transplantation
The authors focus on tolerogenic dendritic cells (tol-DCs) that have the potential to promote immune tolerance after solid-organ transplantation. They focus on their development and interactions with other regulatory cells and explore various tol-DC engineering protocols. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

Targeting Th17 Cells in Autoimmune Diseases
The authors discuss the rationale for targeting two checkpoints in the development and inflammatory function of T helper 17 (Th17) cells, retinoid-related orphan receptor-γt (RORγt) and interleukin (IL)-23, and review recent progress in the development of both RORγt small molecule inhibitors and IL-23 neutralizing antibodies. [Trends Pharmacol Sci] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
23andMe Announces Agreement with Pfizer Inc. to Research Genetics of Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease
23andMe announced an agreement with Pfizer Inc. in which the companies will aim to enroll 10,000 people with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) in a research initiative designed to explore the genetic factors associated with the onset, progression, severity and response to treatments for IBD. [23andMe, Inc.] Press Release

FDA Approves Genentech’s Avastin Plus Chemotherapy for Treatment of Advanced Cervical Cancer
Genentech announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Avastin® (bevacizumab) in combination with paclitaxel and cisplatin or paclitaxel and topotecan for the treatment of women with persistent, recurrent or metastatic carcinoma of the cervix. [Genentech, Inc.] Press Release

Protagen AG Launches Landmark First Research Test Kit for Systemic Sclerosis
Protagen AG launched its first ELISA research use test kit for Systemic Sclerosis (SSc), the ADx®SSc Multilisa®. Protagen developed the new assay to synergistically combine two proprietary, novel disease markers with two standard diagnostic markers to support medical research in autoimmune diseases. [Protagen AG] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 40th American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics (ASHI)
October 20-24, 2014
Denver, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Scientist – Pathways/Targets in the Blood Transcriptome of Human Tuberculosis (Medical Research Council)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Host-Fungal Interactions (University of Birmingham)

Postdoctoral Position – Macrophage Functions (Cochin Institute)

Senior Manager – Inflammation, Fibrosis Biomarkers (Gilead Sciences)

Professor – Medicine, Microbiology and Immunobiology (Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard)

Postdoctoral Position – Human Heart Transplantation Immunology (Columbia University)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Human Immunology (University of Pennsylvania)

Principal Investigator Positions – Systems & Synthetic Biology (Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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