Study Shows Restored Immunity for Cancer-Related Fungal Infections
Researchers harnessed Sleeping Beauty to engineer human T cells to express receptors known as chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) which redirected the killing machinery of the T cells. T cells displaying CAR targeted sugar molecules in Aspergillus cell walls, killing the fungus. [Press release from MD Anderson Cancer Center discussing online prepublication in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences]
Press Release | Abstract
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Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Induces a Th1-Like State in CD4+CCR4+ T Cells|
Using patient cells and cell lines, researchers demonstrate that Tax, in cooperation with specificity protein 1, boosts expression of the Th1 master regulator T box transcription factor and consequently promotes production of IFN-γ. [J Clin Invest] Full Article
p53MVA Therapy in Patients with Refractory Gastrointestinal Malignancies Elevates p53-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses
Scientists conducted a Phase I trial of a Modified Vaccinia Ankara vaccine delivering wild type human p53 (p53MVA) in patients with refractory gastrointestinal cancers. Peripheral blood samples were collected pre- and post-immunization for immunophenotyping, monitoring of p53MVA induced immune response and examination of PD-1 checkpoint inhibition in vitro. [Clin Cancer Res]
Induced CD8+FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis Are Modulated by p38 Phosphorylation and Monocytes Expressing Membrane TNF-α and CD86
Researchers determined the suitability of repurposing anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody therapy for rheumatoid arthritis by analyzing its ability to induce CD8+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells from peripheral blood cells. [Arthritis Rheumatol] Abstract
The Majority of Human Memory B Cells Recognizing RhD and Tetanus Resides in IgM+ B Cells
Scientists previously observed that anti-RhD (D) Igs cloned from two donors, hyperimmunized with D+ erythrocytes, were predominantly of the IgM isotype. They analyzed the phenotype and frequency of D- and tetanus toxoid-specific B cells by culturing B cells in limiting dilution upon irradiated CD40L-expressing EL4.B5 cells and testing the culture supernatant. [J Immunol] Abstract
Surface Expression of CD39 Identifies an Enriched Treg-Cell Subset in the Rheumatic Joint, which Does Not Suppress IL-17A Secretion
As expression of the ATP-hydrolyzing enzymes CD39 and CD73 and the resulting anti-inflammatory adenosine production have been implicated as an important mechanism of suppression, researchers characterized FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in blood and synovial fluid samples of rheumatoid arthritis patients in the context of CD39 and CD73 expression. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract
The Immunomodulatory Effects of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in ALS Patients
Researchers investigated the immunomodulatory effect of mesenchymal stem cells on peripheral blood mononuclear cells in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, focusing on regulatory T lymphocytes (CD4+/CD25high/FoxP3+) and the mRNA expression of several cytokines. [J Neurochem] Abstract
Therapeutic DC Vaccination with IL-2 as a Consolidation Therapy for Ovarian Cancer Patients: A Phase I/II Trial
Ten ovarian cancer patients with minimal residual disease were treated with autologous dendritic cells (DCs) and IL-2 to evaluate the safety and feasibility of this therapeutic strategy and to characterize the antigen-specific immune alterations induced through this treatment. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract
Impaired T Cell Activation and Cytokine Production by Calcitriol-Primed Human B Cells
Researchers studied whether calcitriol-primed B cells modulate T activation and function. After removal of calcitriol, primed B cells were cocultured with autologous CD4+ T cells. Besides the B cell phenotype T cell activation and their consecutive cytokine production were assessed. [Clin Exp Immunol] Abstract
Comparison of Different Rabbit ATG Preparation Effects on Early Lymphocyte Subset Recovery after Allogeneic HSCT and Its Association with EBV-Mediated PTLD
Scientists conclude that high, but importantly not currently applied low dosages of antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme (ATG-G), impair thymic T cell regeneration and memory T cell immunity to a greater extent than ATG-Fresenius in pediatric patients. In addition, results suggest an increased risk for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-mediated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) when treated with ATG-G. [J Cancer Res Clin Oncol] Abstract
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TREG-Cell Therapies for Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases|
The authors discuss three potential strategies for the clinical use of regulatory T (TREG) cells to treat autoimmune rheumatic disease: expansion of self-antigen-specific natural TREG cells in vivo; propagation of antigen-specific natural TREG cells ex vivo, by in vitro antigenic stimulation, and subsequent transfer back into the host; or conversion of antigen-specific conventional T cells into TREG cells in vivo or ex vivo. [Nat Rev Rheumatol] Abstract
Regulation of Hematopoietic and Leukemic Stem Cells by the Immune System
Paradoxically, many immune mechanisms that evolved to activate emergency hematopoiesis during infection may actually contribute to the expansion and differentiation of leukemic stem cells (LSCs), promoting leukemia progression. The authors summarize mechanisms by which the immune system regulates hematopoietic stem cells and LSCs. [Cell Death Diff] Full Article
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