Volume 2.24 | Jun 24

Human Immunology News 2.24 June 24, 2014
Human Immunology News
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TOP STORY
Not Even Cell Death Can Stop the Alarm
Scientists demonstrated that activated inflammasomes also have enzymatic functions outside of the living cell and can thus activate additional messengers. In a type of chain reaction, the inflammasomes released from dying cells are taken up by neighboring immune cells where they can activate more inflammasomes. [Press release from Universität Bonn discussing online prepublication in Nature Immunology] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Diverse Intracellular Pathogens Activate Type III Interferon Expression from Peroxisomes
Researchers found that RIG-I like receptors induce type III interferon expression in a variety of human cell types, and identified factors that differentially regulate expression of type I and type III interferons. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

A Novel Self-Lipid Antigen Targets Human T Cells Against CD1c+ Leukemias
Investigators report that CD1c self-reactive T cells recognize a novel class of self-lipids, identified as methyl-lysophosphatidic acids (mLPAs), which are accumulated in leukemia cells. mLPA-specific T cells efficiently kill CD1c+ acute leukemia cells, poorly recognize nontransformed CD1c-expressing cells, and protect immunodeficient mice against CD1c+ human leukemia cells. [J Exp Med] Abstract | Press Release

IL-17 and GM-CSF Expression Are Antagonistically Regulated by Human T Helper Cells
Investigators analyzed the regulation of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expression by human T helper (TH) cell subsets. The induction of GM-CSF expression by human TH cells is constrained by the interleukin-23 (IL-23)/ROR-γt/TH17 cell axis but promoted by the IL-12/T-bet/TH1 cell axis. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract

Androgens Alter T-Cell Immunity by Inhibiting T-Helper 1 Differentiation
Investigators demonstrate a clinically relevant mechanism by which androgens inhibit T-helper 1 differentiation of CD4 T cells and provide rationale for targeting androgens to enhance CD4-mediated immune responses in cancer or, conversely, for modulating androgens to mitigate CD4 responses in disorders of autoimmunity. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

CD40-Mediated Amplification of Local Immunity by Epithelial Cells is Impaired by HPV
CD40 ligation was associated with the production of chemokines and the attraction of lymphocytes and myeloid cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. CD40-mediated activation of epithelial cells resulted in a highly coordinated response of genes required for the local development and sustainment of adaptive immune responses. [J Invest Dermatol] Abstract

The IL-6-STAT3 Axis Mediates a Reciprocal Crosstalk between Cancer-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Neutrophils to Synergistically Prompt Gastric Cancer Progression
Scientists investigated the interaction between neutrophils and gastric cancer-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GC-MSCs) and explored the biological role of this interaction. They demonstrated that GC-MSCs stimulated the activation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways in neutrophils, which was essential for the functions of activated neutrophils. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Immunological Subtypes in Breast Cancer are Prognostic for Invasive Ductal but Not for Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma
Researchers investigated the relevance of the tumor immune response in the major histological subtypes of breast cancer. They also assessed the relationship between immune responses and molecular subtypes and their prognostic potential. [Br J Cancer] Abstract

A Safety and Feasibility Study of an Allogeneic Colon Cancer Cell Vaccine Administered with a Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor-Producing Bystander Cell Line in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
A novel colorectal cancer vaccine composed of irradiated, allogeneic human colon cancer cells and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-producing bystander cells was developed and tested in combination with a single intravenous low dose of cyclophosphamide in a Phase I study of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. [Ann Surg Oncol] Abstract

Immunotherapy Converts Nonimmunogenic Pancreatic Tumors into Immunogenic Foci of Immune Regulation
Investigators designed a neoadjuvant and adjuvant clinical trial comparing an irradiated, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting, allogeneic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma vaccine given as a single agent or in combination with low-dose cyclophosphamide to deplete regulatory T cells as a means to study how the tumor microenvironment is altered by immunotherapy. [Cancer Immunol Res] Abstract | Press Release

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REVIEWS
Follicular Dendritic Cells: Dynamic Antigen Libraries
Recent observations suggest that follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) actively shape humoral immunity. The authors discuss recent findings concerning the antigen acquisition and retention functions of FDCs, and relevant implications for protective immunity. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

MicroRNAs, Immune Cells and Pregnancy
The authors provide a summary of the current data on microRNA (miRNA) regulation as well as functional profiles of miRNAs that are found in the uterus, in immune cells associated with maternal tolerance to the fetus, and those involved in angiogenesis and placental development. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.

Microbiology and Infectious Disease Congress 2014
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Gradalis, Inc. Announces Presentation of New Data
Gradalis Inc. announced that new data from its lead cancer programs focused on its personalized immunotherapy product were presented. [Press release from GlobeNewswire discussing research presented at the 50th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), Chicago, and the 17th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Gene and Cellular Therapy (ASGCT), Washington, DC] Press Release

Biomarkers Predict Long-Term Outcomes in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
Researchers demonstrate the possibility of using biomarkers (developed from whole blood gene expression profiles) in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis to predict the status of their disease at 12 months. The long-term disease status at 12 months was accurately predicted only after treatment had been initiated, in newly diagnosed patients. [Press release from the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) discussing research presented at the 2014 EULAR Annual Congress, Paris] Press Release

First Phase III Study Evaluating Cimzia® in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Presented at EULAR 2014
The study showed that combination treatment of Cimzia® with methotrexate (MTX) was significantly more effective than placebo with MTX in inhibiting structural disease progression, as well as achieving clinical remission in MTX-naïve Japanese patients with early RA and poor prognostic factors. [Press release from UCB S.A. discussing research presented at the 2014 European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Annual Congress, Paris] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Cellectis’ UCART19 Receives Advanced-Therapy Medicinal Product Classification from EMA
Cellectis received a scientific recommendation from the European Medicines Agency (EMA), in consultation with the European Commission, for UCART19, its lead product candidate in adoptive immunotherapy against CD19 expressing leukemias and lymphomas. [Cellectis] Press Release

Inovio Pharmaceuticals Initiates Cervical Cancer Clinical Trial
Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced it has initiated a Phase I/IIa clinical trial to evaluate safety, immunogenicity, clinical responses and disease-free survival of its DNA immunotherapy product, INO-3112, in treating human papillomavirus-associated cervical cancer. [Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

Celsion Corporation Completes Acquisition of EGEN, Inc.
Celsion Corporation announced the completion of the acquisition of substantially all of the assets of EGEN, Inc., a privately-held biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of nucleic acid-based therapeutics for the treatment of cancer and other difficult to treat diseases. [Celsion Corporation] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW EMBO Conference on Innate Lymphoid Cells
September 29 – October 1, 2014
Paris, France

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Principal Investigator Positions – Systems & Synthetic Biology (Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer)

NEW Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

NEW Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

NEW Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Immune Focused In Vitro Analytics (Celentyx Ltd.)

Research Scientist – Autoimmunity (Eli Lilly)

Postdoctoral Positions – Cancer Immunology (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)

PhD Candidate – Tumor Immunology and Cell Signaling (Goethe University Frankfurt)

Postdoctoral Positions – Epigenetics in Autoimmune Diseases (Weill Cornell Medical School/Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin)

Research Associate – Cellular Immunology (Alector LLC)

PhD Candidate – Immune Monitoring (Erasmus MC)

PhD Studentship – Characterization of Human Antibodies Removed from the Repertoire in Central Tolerance (King’s College London)

Principal Investigator – Molecular Mechanisms of Inflammation (Inflammation Research Center – VIB-UGent)

PhD Research Position – Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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