Volume 2.19 | May 20

Human Immunology News 2.19 May 20, 2014
Human Immunology News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
“Bystander” Chronic Infections Thwart Development of Immune Cell Memory
The researchers generated signatures of transcribed genes of cytomegalovirus-specific T cells from people with chronic hepatitis C infection and healthy controls. The gene-expression profiles of these two groups showed a clear impact of bystander chronic infection on T cells, including a difference in expression of many key T-cell memory-related genes. [Press release from The University of Pennsylvania discussing online prepublication in Immunity] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Etrolizumab as Induction Therapy for Ulcerative Colitis: A Randomized, Controlled, Phase II Trial
Etrolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that selectively binds the β7 subunit of the heterodimeric integrins α4β7 and αEβ7. Researchers assessed etrolizumab in patients with moderately-to-severely active ulcerative colitis. [Lancet] Full Article | Press Release

γδT17 Cells Promote the Accumulation and Expansion of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Human Colorectal Cancer
Researchers demonstrate that innate γδT (γδT17) cells are the major cellular source of interleukin (IL)-17 in human colorectal cancer. Microbial products elicited by tumorous epithelial barrier disruption correlated with inflammatory dendritic cell (inf-DC) accumulation and γδT17 polarization in human tumors. Activated inf-DCs induced γδT17 cells to secrete IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and GM-CSF with a concomitant accumulation of immunosuppressive PMN-MDSCs in the tumor. [Immunity] Abstract

Parallel T-Cell Cloning and Deep Sequencing of Human MAIT Cells Reveal Stable Oligoclonal TCRβ Repertoire
Scientists showed that human mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are remarkably oligoclonal in both the blood and liver, display high inter-individual homology and exhibit a restricted length CDR3β domain of the TCRVβ chain. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Viral and Host Factors Determine Innate Immune Responses in Airway Epithelial Cells from Children with Wheeze and Atopy
Investigators aimed to determine if impaired interferon responses can be identified in young children at risk of developing asthma due to atopy and/or early life wheeze, and if the site of infection or the infecting virus influence the antiviral response. [Thorax] Full Article

T Cell Receptor Signals to NF-κB Are Transmitted by a Cytosolic p62-Bcl10-Malt1-IKK Signalosome
The molecular mechanisms connecting the Carma1-Bcl10-Malt1 complex to activation of inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) are incompletely defined. Researchers found that the active IKK complex is a component of a T cell receptor-dependent cytosolic Bcl10-Malt1 signalosome containing the adaptor protein p62, which forms in effector T cells. [Sci Signal] Abstract | Press Release

Effector-Mediated Eradication of Precursor B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with a Novel Fc-Engineered Monoclonal Antibody Targeting the BAFF-R
Researchers tested a novel humanized anti-BAFF-R (B-cell activating factor receptor) monoclonal antibody optimalized for FcRγIII-mediated, antibody-dependent cell killing by effector cells. The antibodies significantly stimulated natural killer cell-mediated killing of different human patient-derived acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. [Mol Cancer Ther] Abstract | Press Release

Inhibition of B7-1 (CD80) by RhuDex® Reduces Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Inflammation in Human Atherosclerotic Lesions
Carotid artery plaque stimulation with lipopolysaccharides could be significantly inhibited by RhuDex®, a specific inhibitor of the costimulatory molecule B7-1 ex vivo. Coculture of antigen-presenting cells with T-cells demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of RhuDex® derived from reduced T-cell activation. [Drug Des Devel Ther] Abstract

Interleukin-17 Facilitates the Immune Suppressor Capacity of High Grade Glioma-Derived CD4 (+) CD25 (+) Foxp3 (+) T Cells via Releasing Transforming Growth Factor Beta
Researchers aimed to characterize glioma-derived interleukin (IL)-17+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Single cells were isolated from surgically removed high grade glioma tissue and examined by flow cytometry. The immune suppressor effect of IL-17+ Tregs on CD8+ T cells was assessed in vitro. [Scand J Immunol] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Translational Control of Immune Responses: From Transcripts to Translatomes
Scientists review the current knowledge on mechanisms that regulate translation and thereby modulate immunological function. They further describe approaches for measuring and analyzing translatomes and how such powerful tools can facilitate future insights on the role of translational control in the immune system. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Intravenous Ascorbic Acid as an Adjuvant to Interleukin-2 Immunotherapy
The authors present a scientific rationale to support the assessment of intravenous ascorbic acid as an adjuvant to decrease interleukin-2 mediated toxicity and possibly increase treatment efficacy. [J Transl Med] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Dendreon Announces Presentation of PROVENGE® (Sipuleucel-T) and DN24-02 Immuno-Oncology Data
Dendreon Corporation will present two PROVENGE® (sipuleucel-T) abstracts from the Phase II STAND study and the PROCEED registry, and one abstract highlighting data from the ongoing Phase II study of DN24-02, an investigational active cellular immunotherapy for patients with surgically resected HER2+ urothelial cancer. [Press release from Dendreon Corporation discussing research to be presented at the 50th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), Chicago] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Baylor Research Institute Receives $3.3 Million Grant to Continue Research in Autoimmune Diseases
Baylor Research Institute has received a $3.3 million grant from the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, one of the National Institutes of Health, to fund its Autoimmunity Center of Excellence. [Baylor Health Care System] Press Release

Kymab Secures US$40 Million Investment from Two of the Largest Foundations in the World to Advance Clinical Development of Antibody Therapeutics
Kymab announced it has successfully raised US$40 million in a Series B financing. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation joins existing investor, the Wellcome Trust, each investing US$20 million. The funds will enable Kymab to maximize the potential of its Kymouse™ platform and advance its proprietary pipeline of first-in-class therapeutic human monoclonal antibodies in areas of significant unmet medical need. [Kymab Limited]
Press Release

Transgene Reports Progress with Its Proprietary Oncolytic Immunotherapy to Treat Solid Tumors
Transgene SA provided an update on TG6002, Transgene’s proprietary oncolytic immunotherapy being developed for the treatment of solid tumors. TG6002 was discovered and designed by Transgene, which owns all development and commercialization rights to the program. TG6002 is currently in pre-clinical testing and has shown activity in several human tumor mouse models. [Transgene SA] Press Release

2014 Avant-Garde Awards Focus on Strengthening the Immune System
With proposals ranging from enhancing the immune system’s ability to fight HIV infection to improving long-term immune health in HIV-infected drug users, three scientists have been chosen to receive the 2014 Avant-Garde Award for HIV/AIDS Research from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, part of the National Institutes of Health. The three scientists, Drs. Stephen Waggoner, Heinrich Gottlinger, and Melanie Ott, will each receive $500,000 per year for five years to support their research. [National Institutes of Health] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Frontiers of Immunology in Health and Diseases
September 2-6, 2014
Suzhou, China

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Research Associate – Cellular Immunology (Alector LLC)

NEW PhD Candidate – Immune Monitoring (Erasmus MC)

Postdoctoral Scholar – Cancer Research (University of Chicago)

PhD Studentship – Characterization of Human Antibodies Removed from the Repertoire in Central Tolerance (King’s College London)

Principal Investigator – Molecular Mechanisms of Inflammation (Inflammation Research Center – VIB-UGent)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Inflammatory Mechanisms in Chronic Rhinosinusitis (Johns Hopkins University)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Adoptive T Cell Immunotherapy (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Systemic Autoimmunity (Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation)

Director of GMP/GLP Quality Operations (University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine)

PhD Research Position – Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Research Technologist – hPSC (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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