Volume 2.17 | May 6

Human Immunology News 2.17 May 6, 2014
Human Immunology News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Immune System Linked to Neurodegeneration
Researchers demonstrated how genetic variations among healthy, young individuals can influence immune cell function. Two different types of immune cells – T cells and monocytes – were purified from each individual’s blood, representing the adaptive and innate arms of immunity, respectively. The researchers profiled these cells to measure the expression of 19,114 genes in each cell type. [Press release from Harvard Medical School discussing online prepublication in Science] Press Release | Abstract
How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
T-Cell Receptor Recognition of HLA-DQ2-Gliadin Complexes Associated with Celiac Disease
Celiac disease is a T cell-mediated disease induced by dietary gluten, a component of which is gliadin. 95% of individuals with celiac disease carry the HLA (human leukocyte antigen)-DQ2 locus. Researchers determined the T-cell receptor usage and fine specificity of patient-derived T-cell clones specific for two epitopes from wheat gliadin, DQ2.5-glia-α1a and DQ2.5-glia-α2. [Nat Struct Mol Biol] Abstract | Press Release

Voluntary Activation of the Sympathetic Nervous System and Attenuation of the Innate Immune Response in Humans
Researchers evaluated the effects of a training program on the autonomic nervous system and innate immune response. All subjects underwent experimental endotoxemia. In the intervention group, plasma levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased more rapidly after endotoxin administration, correlated strongly with preceding epinephrine levels, and were higher. Levels of proinflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 were lower in the intervention group and correlated negatively with IL-10 levels. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA]
Abstract | Press Release

Recombinant Immunotoxin for Cancer Treatment with Low Immunogenicity by Identification and Silencing of Human T-Cell Epitopes
Using human cells, investigators identified eight helper T-cell epitopes in PE38, a portion of the bacterial protein Pseudomonas exotoxin A which consists of the toxin moiety of the recombinant immunotoxin, and used this information to make LMB-T18 in which three epitopes were deleted and five others diminished by point mutations in key residues. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Autologous T Cell Therapy for Cytomegalovirus as a Consolidative Treatment for Recurrent Glioblastoma
Researchers reported findings of a formal clinical assessment of safety and potential clinical efficacy of autologous cytomegalovirus-specific T cell therapy as a consolidative treatment for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. [Cancer Res] Abstract

Differential Effect of Vitamin D on NOD2- and TLR-Induced Cytokines in Crohn’s Disease
Using peripheral mononuclear cells and monocyte-derived dendritic cells from Crohn’s disease, it was found that the hormonal form of vitamin D decreased Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced cytokine production and enhanced cytokine levels induced by muramyl dipeptide, the NOD2 ligand. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

KIR/HLA Interactions Negatively Affect Rituximab- but Not GA101 (Obinutuzumab)-Induced Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity
Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) mediated by NK cells is regulated by inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs), which interact with target cell HLA class I. Investigators analyzed how KIR/HLA interactions influence ADCC induced by rituximab and by GA101, a novel type II CD20 Ab glycoengineered for increased FcgRIII binding and ADCC capacity. [J Immunol] Abstract

Phorbol Myristate Acetate, but Not CD40L, Induces the Differentiation of CLL B Cells into Ab-Secreting Cells
Scientists investigated the capacity of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells to undergo terminal differentiation into Ig-secreting plasma cells in T cell-independent and T cell-dependent responses. [Immunol Cell Biol] Full Article

CD56brightCD25+ NK Cells Are Preferentially Recruited to the Maternal/Fetal Interface in Early Human Pregnancy
Researchers identified a subtype of decidual natural killer (dNK) cells characterized as having a CD3CD56brightCD25+ phenotype. They found that CD56brightCD25+ NK cells preferentially localize to the maternal/fetal interface during early human pregnancy. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

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A New System for High-Throughput Cell Isolation Directly from Whole Blood
 
REVIEWS
Human Innate Lymphoid Cells
Scientists provide an overview of the characteristics of innate lymphoid cells (ILC) in the context of health and disease. They focus on human ILC but refer to mouse studies if needed to clarify aspects of ILC biology. [Blood] Abstract

A Naturally Occurring CD8+CD122+ T-Cell Subset as a Memory-Like Treg Family
The authors summarize the significant progress in this promising field of CD8+CD122+ regulatory T cell research and discuss their phenotypes, suppressive roles in autoimmunity and alloimmunity, functional requirements, mechanisms of action and potential applications in the clinic. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Kadmon Corporation Presents Results of KD025 Preclinical and Clinical Studies
Kadmon Corporation, LLC announced the presentation of preclinical and clinical data from studies of KD025, the Company’s Phase II, orally bioavailable, potent and highly selective inhibitor of Rho-associated coiled-coiled kinase 2, used in models of autoimmune disease such as a collagen induced arthritis and lupus. [Press release from Kadmon Corporation, LLC discussing research presented at the American Association of Immunologists (AAI) Annual Meeting, Pittsburgh] Press Release | Poster

From our sponsor: Free Nature Reviews Immunology poster – Immune Response to HIV. Request a copy.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Outwitting Immunity to Treat Disease: Start-Up Raises 33 Millions CHF
EPFL start-up Anokion has the immune system in its sights. The company has developed technology for retraining white blood cells that holds promise for treating autoimmune, allergic, and a number of other diseases. A group of private investors have pledged 33 millions Swiss francs (37 million dollars) into the young company. [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne] Press Release

Scripps Florida Scientists Awarded Grant to Develop New Diagnostics for Cancer, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Colitis
Scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute have been awarded a $2.3 million grant from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health to develop new technology to diagnose cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and colitis. [The Scripps Research Institute] Press Release

Advaxis to Initiate Clinical Development of ADXS-cHER2 Immunotherapy to Treat Pediatric Bone Cancer
Advaxis, Inc. announced it intends to initiate a clinical development program with its product candidate, ADXS-cHER2, for the treatment of pediatric osteosarcoma. ADXS-cHER2 is an immunotherapy that targets the HER2 oncogene, which is overexpressed in certain solid-tumor cancers, including pediatric bone cancer and breast cancer. [MarketWatch, Inc.] Press Release

Aduro BioTech Announces Initation of a Clinical Trial of Its Novel Immunotherapy in Patients with Brain Cancer at Providence Cancer Center
Aduro BioTech, Inc. announced that the first patients have been enrolled in a Phase I clinical trial to evaluate its novel immunotherapy ADU-623 in patients with high-grade glioma, a form of brain cancer. [BusinessWire]
Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Natural Killer Cell Symposium 2014
September 10-12, 2014
Hannover, Germany

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Principal Investigator – Molecular Mechanisms of Inflammation (Inflammation Research Center – VIB-UGent)

NEW Research Technologist – hPSC (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Inflammatory Mechanisms in Chronic Rhinosinusitis (Johns Hopkins University)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Adoptive T Cell Immunotherapy (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Systemic Autoimmunity (Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation)

PhD Studentship – Translational Liver Immunology (Karolinska Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (AstraZeneca)

Director – Human Immunology (Biogen Idec)

Director of GMP/GLP Quality Operations (University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine)

PhD Research Position – Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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