Volume 2.16 | Apr 29

Human Immunology News 2.16 April 29, 2014
Human Immunology News
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TOP STORY
Using New Single-Cell Technologies, Researchers Create Comprehensive Map of Human B Cell Development
Researchers described a powerful new method for mapping cellular development at the single cell level. By combining emerging technologies for studying single cells with a new, advanced computational algorithm, they have designed a novel approach for mapping development and created the most comprehensive map ever made of human B cell development. [Press release from Columbia University discussing online prepublication in Cell] Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
Free Sample: The Only Kit to Isolate Th17 Cells Without Cell Activation
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Aggregated Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Limit Inflammation by Degrading Cytokines and Chemokines
Researchers report that neutrophils recruited to sites of inflammation undergo oxidative burst and form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In individuals with impaired NETosis, monosodium urate crystals induce uncontrolled production of inflammatory mediators from neutrophils and persistent inflammation. [Nat Med] Abstract

Lytic Immune Synapse Function Requires Filamentous Actin Deconstruction by Coronin 1A
Investigators showed that Coronin 1A (Coro1A) is required for natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic function in two human NK cell lines and ex vivo cells from a Coro1A-deficient patient. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

API5 Confers Tumoral Immune Escape through FGF2-Dependent Cell Survival Pathway
Scientists showed that the anti-apoptotic gene Api5 acts as an immune escape gene in tumors by rendering them resistant to apoptosis triggered by tumor antigen-specific T cells. [Cancer Res] Abstract

Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Promote Microbial Mutagenesis and Pathoadaptation in Chronic Infections
Researchers’ findings confirmed the current view that reactive oxygen species can promote mucoidy in vitro, but revealed polymorphonucleocytes are proficient at inducing mucoid conversion in the absence of an oxidative burst. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Press Release

Dendritic Cells from Aged Subjects Contribute to Chronic Airway Inflammation by Activating Bronchial Epithelial Cells Under Steady State
Dendritic cells (DCs) from aged subjects display an enhanced basal level of activation, which can affect the function of epithelial cells. Results suggest that this is indeed the scenario as exposure of primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) to supernatants from unstimulated DCs of aged subjects resulted in activation of PBECs. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Recognition of Distinct Cross-Reactive Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Reveals a Unique TCR Signature in a Clinical Setting
The authors report the novel TCR signature of cross-reactive HLA-A*02:01 (A2) CMV (NLVPMVATV)-specific CD8+ T cells recognizing a specific array of HLA-B27 alleles using technical advancements that combine both IFN-γ secretion and multiplex nested RT-PCR for determining paired CDR3α/β sequences from a single cell. [J Immunol] Abstract

Human AdV-Specific T Cells: Persisting In Vitro Functionality Despite Lethal Irradiation
Researchers tested the effect of irradiation on human adenovirus (HAdV)-specific T cells, which had been expanded in vitro, by stimulating PBMCs with HAdV-peptide pools and IL-15 for 12 days. [Bone Marrow Transplant] Abstract

The Adapter Proteins ADAP and Nck Cooperate in T Cell Adhesion
In a former approach to determine the interactome of Nck in human T cells, researchers identified the adapter protein ADAP as a Nck-interacting protein. Employing co-immunoprecipitations, they demonstrated that both Nck family members Nck1 and Nck2 coprecipitate with ADAP. They showed that endogenous ADAP is phosphorylated in primary human T cell blasts and thus associates with Nck. [Mol Immunol] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Stress, Inflammation, and Defense of Homeostasis
Inflammation is traditionally considered a defense response induced by infection or injury. However, inflammation can also be induced by tissue stress and malfunction in the absence of infection or overt tissue damage. The authors discuss the relationship between homeostasis, stress responses, and inflammation. [Mol Cell]
Abstract | Full Article

Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells of the Gut: Relevance to Immunity and Pathology
This review will explore the immunology of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and will discuss their involvement in human disease and tolerance with an emphasis on those in the gastrointestinal lymphoid tissue. [Clin Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Study Suggests Targeting B Cells May Help with MS
A new study suggests that targeting B cells may be associated with reduced disease activity for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The researchers found that when B cells were reduced to below a threshold of 64 cells per microliter, disease activity, as measured by appearance of new brain lesions, was significantly reduced. [Press release from the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) discussing research presented at the AAN’s 66th Annual Meeting, Philadelphia] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
NeoStem Announces Definitive Agreement to Acquire California Stem Cell, Inc.
NeoStem, Inc. announced that it has entered into a definitive agreement to acquire California Stem Cell, Inc. As a result of this acquisition, NeoStem plans to initiate a pivotal Phase III trial of Melapuldencel-T, an autologous melanoma initiating (stem) cell immune based therapy intended to eliminate the tumor cells capable of causing disease recurrence. [NeoStem, Inc.] Press Release

Medigene Receives New US Patent for TCR-Modified T Cell Immunotherapy
Medigene AG announced that the US Patent Office has issued patent No. 8,697,854 “High affinity T cell receptor and use thereof”, relating to T-cell receptors against the tumor associated antigen tyrosinase. The patent has a term until 2030 and is licensed exclusively to Medigene’s wholly owned subsidiary Trianta Immunotherapies GmbH by Helmholtz Zentrum München. [Medigene AG] Press Release

Peregrine Pharmaceuticals Announces Initiation of an Investigator-Sponsored Trial Combining Its Immunotherapy Bavituximab and Ipilimumab (Yervoy®) in Advanced Melanoma
Peregrine Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced the opening of an investigator-sponsored trial of its investigational immunotherapy bavituximab in combination with Bristol-Myers Squibb’s ipilimumab (Yervoy®), for the treatment of advanced melanoma. [Peregrine Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

Bavarian Nordic Announces First Patient Treated in a Phase II Study Evaluating Its Immunotherapy Candidate CV-301 in Bladder Cancer
Bavarian Nordic A/S announced the first patient has now been treated in a randomized, prospective Phase II study of its active immunotherapy candidate CV-301 in bladder cancer. [Bavarian Nordic A/S] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW EMBO Conference on Innate Lymphoid Cells
September 29 – October 1, 2014
Paris, France

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Inflammatory Mechanisms in Chronic Rhinosinusitis (Johns Hopkins University)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Adoptive T Cell Immunotherapy (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Systemic Autoimmunity (Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation)

PhD Studentship – Translational Liver Immunology (Karolinska Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (AstraZeneca)

Director – Human Immunology (Biogen Idec)

Director of GMP/GLP Quality Operations (University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine)

PhD Research Position – Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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