Volume 2.15 | Apr 22

Human Immunology News 2.15 April 22, 2014
Human Immunology News
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The Key to Easy Asthma Diagnosis Is in the Blood
Using just a single drop of blood, a team of researchers has developed a faster, cheaper and more accurate tool for diagnosing even mild cases of asthma. The researchers used neutrophil cell function in a clinical study to show accurate asthma diagnosis. [Press release from the University of Wisconsin-Madison discussing online prepublication in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Early-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Common Variable Immunodeficiency-Like Disease Caused by IL-21 Deficiency
Researchers uncovered IL-21 deficiency as a novel cause of early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in human subjects accompanied by defects in B-cell development similar to those found in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. IBD might mask an underlying primary immunodeficiency, as illustrated here with IL-21 deficiency. [J Allergy Clin Immunol] Abstract

Induction of Antigen-Specific Immunity with a Vaccine Targeting NY-ESO-1 to the Dendritic Cell Receptor DEC-205
Researchers aimed to enhance anticancer immunity by exploiting the capacity of dendritic cells to initiate T cell immunity by efficient uptake and presentation of endocytosed material. [Sci Transl Med]
Abstract | Press Release

Humoral Response to a Viral Glycan Correlates with Survival on PROSTVAC-VF
Researchers used glycan microarrays to profile antiglycan antibody responses induced by PROSTVAC-VF, a poxvirus-based cancer vaccine currently in Phase III clinical trials. Although the vaccine is designed to induce T-cell responses to prostate-specific antigen, they demonstrated that this vaccine also induces humoral responses to a carbohydrate on the poxvirus, the Forssman disaccharide. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Inflammation Converts Human Mesoangioblasts into Targets of Alloreactive Immune Responses: Implications for Allogeneic Cell Therapy of DMD
Scientists report that in resting conditions, human mesoangioblasts are poorly immunogenic, inefficient in promoting the expansion of alloreactive T cells and intrinsically resistant to T-cell killing. However, upon exposure to IFN-γ or differentiation into myotubes, mesoangioblasts acquire the ability to promote the expansion of alloreactive T cells and acquire sensitivity to T-cell killing. [Mol Ther] Abstract

Human CD4+HLA-G+ Regulatory T Cells Are Potent Suppressors of Graft-versus-Host Disease In Vivo
The authors compared properties and molecular characteristics of human CD4+HLA-G+ with those of CD4+CD25+FoxP3-expressing thymus-derived regulatory T cells using in vitro studies of T-cell receptor signaling, single-cell electrophysiology, and functional in vivo studies. [FASEB J] Abstract

Donor Killer Cell Ig-Like Receptor B Haplotypes, Recipient HLA-C1, and HLA-C Mismatch Enhance the Clinical Benefit of Unrelated Transplantation for Acute Myelogenous Leukemia
Researchers used an expanded cohort of 1532 T cell-replete transplants to examine the interaction between donor killer cell Ig-like receptor-B (KIR B) genes and recipient class I HLA KIR ligands. [J Immunol] Abstract

A Novel Immunomodulatory Effect of Ugonin U in Human Neutrophils via Stimulation of Phospholipase C
Investigators revealed that ugonin U represents the first identified natural flavonoid compound to directly stimulate phospholipase C (PLC). Moreover, ugonin U induces respiratory burst via the PLC/inositol triphosphate/Ca2+ pathway in human neutrophils. [Free Radic Biol Med] Abstract

Cortisol Biosynthesis in the Human Ocular Surface Innate Immune Response
Scientists found that primary human corneal epithelial cells, fibroblasts and allogeneic macrophages were capable of generating cortisol but in corneal cells, this was independent of Toll-like receptor activation. [PLoS One] Full Article

Cross-Presentation of Viral Antigens in Dribbles Leads to Efficient Activation of Virus-Specific Human Memory T Cells
Researchers showed that purified monocytes, or human PBMCs, loaded with DRibbles (Defective ribosomal products in blebs) isolated from cells expressing cytomegalovirus or CMV, Epstein-Barr virus, and Influenza epitopes (CEF), could activate CMV- or CEF-specific memory T cells. [J Transl Med] Abstract | Full Article

Profiling the Repertoire of T-Cell Receptor Beta-Chain Variable Genes in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes from Subjects Who Have Recovered from Acute Hepatitis B Virus Infection
To explore the portrait of the T-cell receptor beta-chain variable family in peripheral blood lymphocytes from subjects who have recovered from acute hepatitis B virus infection, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated and further sorted into CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

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Interleukin-21: A Double-Edged Sword with Therapeutic Potential
Interleukin (IL)-21 regulates both innate and adaptive immune responses, and it not only has key roles in antitumor and antiviral responses but also exerts major effects on inflammatory responses that promote the development of autoimmune diseases and inflammatory disorders. In this review, the authors provide an overview of the basic biology of IL-21 and discuss how this information has been – and can be – exploited therapeutically. [Nat Rev Drug Discov] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.
University of Zurich Tests Immune Cells on the International Space Station
The human body is fine-tuned to Earth’s gravity. A team headed by Professor Oliver Ullrich from the University of Zurich’s (UZH) Institute of Anatomy is now conducting an experiment on the International Space Station to study whether this also applies to human cells. The transporter spaceship Dragon lifted off from the Cape Canaveral launch center in Florida with a cargo of UZH immune cells on board. [University of Zurich] Press Release

Benaroya Research Institute Evaluates Immunology Approach to Blocking Breast Cancer
Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason recently received a grant to research how blocking a particular molecule in metastatic breast cancer reduces both the growth of primary tumors and the number of lung metastases. The $1.8 million five-year grant comes from the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. [Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason] Press Release

New Center Aims to Use Immune System to Fight Cancer, Other Diseases
A new center at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis will help scientists use the power of the immune system to fight infections and cancers. The Center for Human Immunology and Immunotherapy Programs is part of BioMed21, the university’s initiative to accelerate basic science discoveries into improved diagnosis and treatment for patients. [Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis] Press Release

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National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Chemotactic Cytokines: Positioning Cells in Immunity and Disease
July 27 – August 1, 2014
West Dover, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
NEW Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Adoptive T Cell Immunotherapy (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Systemic Autoimmunity (Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation)

PhD Studentship – Translational Liver Immunology (Karolinska Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (AstraZeneca)

Research Assistant – Human Immunology (University of Oxford)

Director – Human Immunology (Biogen Idec)

Director of GMP/GLP Quality Operations (University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine)

Assistant/Associate Professors – Allergic Inflammation and Sensory Neurobiology (North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine)

PhD Research Position – Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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