Volume 2.14 | Apr 15

Human Immunology News 2.14 April 15, 2014
Human Immunology News
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Mechanism, and Possible Treatment, for Immune Suppression in Liver Disease Uncovered
Researchers propose that the underlying cause of hyper susceptibility to infection in cirrhosis patients is due to the over production of the lipid hormone prostaglandin E2. This hormone prevents white blood cells from ingesting bacteria and killing them. [Press release from EurekAlert! discussing online prepublication in Nature Medicine] Press Release | Abstract
Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Targeted Prostaglandin E2 Inhibition Enhances Antiviral Immunity through Induction of Type I Interferon and Apoptosis in Macrophages
Investigators showed that during influenza A virus infection, prostaglandin E2 was upregulated, which led to the inhibition of type I interferon production and apoptosis in macrophages, thereby causing an increase in virus replication. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

CD4CD8αα Lymphocytes, A Novel Human Regulatory T Cell Subset Induced by Colonic Bacteria and Deficient in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Using colonic lamina propria lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy individuals, and those with colon cancer and irritable bowel disease, scientists demonstrated that CD4CD8αα T lymphocytes expressed most of the regulatory markers and functions of Foxp3 regulatory T cells and secreted interleukin-10. [PLoS Biol] Full Article

Impact of Genomic Polymorphisms on the Repertoire of Human MHC Class I-Associated Peptides
Investigators present a novel approach that enables high-throughput discovery of polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-associated peptides, which play a major role in allorecognition. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Clearance of Acute Myeloid Leukemia by Haploidentical Natural Killer Cells Is Improved Using IL-2 Diphtheria Toxin Fusion Protein
Researchers treated 57 refractory AML patients with lymphodepleting cyclophosphamide and fludarabine followed by natural killer cell infusion and interleukin (IL)-2 administration. [Blood] Abstract

T Cell-Associated α4β7 but Not α4β1 Integrin Is Required for the Induction and Perpetuation of Chronic Colitis
Results demonstrate a direct role for T cell-associated α4β7 but not α4β1 integrins during initiation and perpetuation of chronic colitis. Moreover, the data demonstrated that natalizumab treatment reduced mucosal CD4 T-cell accumulation in Crohn’s disease patients. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

The Human Immune System Recognizes Neopeptides Derived from Mitochondrial DNA Deletions
Researchers used bioinformatics approaches to predict MHC binding of neopeptides identified from known deletions in mitochondrial DNA. Six such peptides were confirmed experimentally to bind to HLA-A*02. Pre-existing human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from healthy donors were shown to recognize and respond to these neopeptides. [J Immunol] Abstract

Naturally Occurring Human Phosphorylcholine Antibodies Are Predominantly Products of Affinity-Matured B Cells in the Adult
The authors designed a phosphorylcholine (PC)-specific probe to identify, isolate, and characterize PC-reactive B cells from 10 healthy individuals. [J Immunol] Abstract

Oversulfated Chondroitin Sulfate Binds to Chemokines and Inhibits Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 Mediated Signaling in Activated T Cells
Researchers previously demonstrated that oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) inhibited the complement classical pathway by binding C1 inhibitor and potentiating its interaction with C1s. By using surface plasmon resonance, they found OSCS interacts with T cell chemokines that can impact adaptive immunity. [PLoS One] Full Article

Prognoses of Patients with Acute-on-Chronic Hepatitis B Liver Failure Are Closely Associated with Altered SOCS1 mRNA Expression and Cytokine Production following Glucocorticoid Treatment
Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 1 plays a crucial role in the immune response and might contribute to the prognoses of liver failure treated with glucocorticoid. Researchers recruited 47 acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure patients receiving glucocorticoid treatment and 30 healthy controls to determine the potential effects of glucocorticoid on the transcriptional level of SOCS1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

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Mechanisms Regulating Skin Immunity and Inflammation
The authors discuss recent findings that highlight the complex regulatory networks that control skin immunity, and provide new paradigms for the mechanisms that regulate skin immune responses in host defence and in chronic inflammation. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

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Immunotherapy Could Help Tackle Tough Liver Cancers
A study detected and expanded MHC-multimer-positive CD8+ T-cells specific for targeted Glypican-3 (GPC3) epitopes and grew T-cell clones. From these clones, the most specific and active T-cell receptor was isolated. When this T-cell receptor was expressed on donor T cells it conferred specificity for GPC3, the hepatocellular carcinoma-associated antigen. [Press release from the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) discussing research presented at the International Liver Congress™ 2014, London] Press Release

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Mersana Therapeutics Enters Collaboration with Takeda to Develop Next-Generation Antibody-Drug Conjugates
Mersana Therapeutics announced that it has entered into a collaboration agreement with Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited to develop next-generation, Fleximer® antibody-drug conjugates. Mersana’s proprietary conjugation technology is comprised of the company’s biodegradable Fleximer polymer and a broad array of customizable linker chemistries matched to Mersana’s diverse, cytotoxic payloads. [Mersana Therapeutics] Press Release

International Study Designed to Find Cause of Crohn’s Disease
As the first study of its kind designed to identify the cause of Crohn’s disease, the Genetics, Environmetal, Microbial Project recently received the largest single donation in Canadian history dedicated to Crohn’s research; $6 million dollar gift from the Helmsley Charitable Trust Fund and a further $4 million financial commitment from Crohn’s and Colitis Canada. [Mount Sinai Hospital Joseph and Wolf Lebovic Health Complex] Press Release

Moffitt Cancer Center Begins Phase I Clinical Trial of New Immunotherapy
Moffitt Cancer Center has initiated a Phase I clinical trial for a new immunotherapy drug, ID-G305, made by Immune Design. [Moffitt Cancer Center] Press Release

Japan Patent Office Issues Advaxis a Notice of Allowance for Two Patent Applications Covering Its Cancer Immunotherapy Platform Technology
Advaxis, Inc. announced that the Japan Patent Office issued to Advaxis two notices of allowance for two patent applications (P-72863-JP, P-7924) with claims for each patent application related to the Company’s proprietary cancer immunotherapy platform technology. These patents will provide protection in Japan until 2030. [Advaxis, Inc.] Press Release
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Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW World Vaccine Congress Asia
June 9, 2014
Singapore, Singapore

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NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Systemic Autoimmunity (Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation)

NEW PhD Studentship – Translational Liver Immunology (Karolinska Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (AstraZeneca)

Research Assistant – Human Immunology (University of Oxford)

Director – Human Immunology (Biogen Idec)

Director of GMP/GLP Quality Operations (University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow Position – Examining the Impact of the Neonatal Immune System on Perinatal Brain Injury (University of Gothenburg)

Assistant/Associate Professors – Allergic Inflammation and Sensory Neurobiology (North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine)

PhD Research Position – Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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