Volume 2.08 | Mar 4

Human Immunology News 2.08 March 4, 2014
Human Immunology News
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TOP STORY
Immune System-Based Therapy Produces Lasting Remissions in Melanoma Patients, Study Reports
A drug that unleashes the immune system to attack cancer can produce lasting remissions and hold the disease in check – for more than two years, in some cases – in many patients with advanced melanoma. [Press release from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute discussing online prepublication in Journal Clinical Oncology]
Press Release
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Ultra Low-Dose IL-2 for Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis after Allogeneic HSCT Mediates Expansion of Regulatory T Cells without Diminishing Anti-Viral and Anti-Leukemic Activity
Scientists prospectively evaluated the effects of ultra low-dose IL-2 injections on CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs) recovery in pediatric patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) and compared this recovery with Treg reconstitution post alloSCT in patients without IL-2. [Clin Cancer Res] Abstract

CTLA4 Blockade Broadens the Peripheral T Cell Receptor Repertoire
Investigators evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of CTLA-4 blockade with tremelimumab in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Scientists used next generation sequencing to study the complementarity determining region 3 from the rearranged T cell receptor variable beta in PBMC of 21 patients, at baseline and 30-60 days after receiving tremelimumab. [Clin Cancer Res] Abstract

Nerve Growth Factor Downregulates Inflammatory Response in Human Monocytes through TrkA
The authors showed that nerve growth factor (NGF) is part of a regulatory loop in monocytes: inflammatory stimuli, while activating a proinflammatory response through TLRs, upregulate the expression of the NGF receptor TrkA. In turn, NGF, by binding to TrkA, interferes with TLR responses. In TLR-activated monocytes, NGF reduces inflammatory cytokine production while inducing the release of anti-inflammatory mediators. [J Immunol] Abstract

Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin Increases HLA-G+/FoxP3+ T-Regulatory Cell Population in an In Vitro Model of PBMC
Researchers aimed to understand whether neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin modulates the T-cell response through regulation of the human leukocyte antigen G complex, which is a mediator of tolerance. [PLoS One] Full Article

The Role of Regulatory T Cell (Treg) Subsets in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Investigators hypothesized that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may be caused by an inappropriate adaption of the maternal immune system to pregnancy. They examined the role of Treg differentiation for the development of GDM during pregnancy. [Clin Exp Immunol] Abstract

Potential Non-T Cells Source of Interleukin-4 in Food Allergy
A previous study showed that allergen-induced IL-4 expression in CD25+ mononuclear cells was increased in allergic patients. However, researchers did not find the expected increase in GATA-3 expression, suggesting that allergen-induced IL-4 might not be of T-cell origin. Researchers sought to determine whether other cell types were responsible for the increased IL-4 expression in the CD25+ cell population. [Pediatr Allergy Immunol] Abstract

Evidence for Non-Neutralizing Autoantibodies against IL-10 Signaling Components in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
The authors investigated the existence of inhibitory autoantibodies against interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) in inflammatory bowel disease patients capable of down-modulating IL-10 signaling thereby mimicking IL-10 or IL-10R deficiency. [BMC Immunol] Abstract | Full Article

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REVIEWS
Intestinal Epithelial Cells: Regulators of Barrier Function and Immune Homeostasis
The authors provide a comprehensive overview of how intestinal epithelial cells maintain host-commensal microbial relationships and immune cell homeostasis in the intestine. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

New Insights Into the Pathogenesis and Management of Lupus in Children
This review presents current knowledge of the innate and adaptive immune responses in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus and the optimal patient management that aims to control the disease. Innate immune dysregulation includes the overexpression of interferon-α, dendritic cell activation, neutrophil extracellular traps and phagocyte abnormalities. [Arch Dis Child] Abstract

Accelerating Immune Reconstitution after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Viral infections remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Many groups have investigated adoptive T-cell transfer as a means of hastening immune reconstitution and preventing and treating viral infections. This review discusses the immunotherapeutic strategies that have been explored. [Clin Transl Immunol] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Immune Design Announces Treatment of First Patient in Phase I Clinical Trial of ID-G305 Cancer Immunotherapy Agent
Immune Design announced treatment of the first patient in a Phase I clinical trial of ID-G305, a cancer immunotherapy investigational agent from the company’s GLAASTM platform. [Immune Design] Press Release

New Drugs Bring Optimism to Graft-versus-Host Disease Treatment
Outcomes are gradually improving for patients who suffer from graft-versus-host disease, one of the most serious complications of stem cell transplantation, and researchers are optimistic that further advances may be on the way. [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute] Press Release

ImmunoCellular Therapeutics Receives Orphan Drug Status for ICT-107 in Glioblastoma in the European Union
ImmunoCellular Therapeutics, Ltd. announced that the European Medicines Agency has granted orphan drug designation for ICT-107 for the treatment of patients with glioblastoma. ICT-107 is an intradermally administered autologous vaccine consisting of the patient’s dendritic cells pulsed with six synthetic tumor-associated antigens: AIM-2, MAGE-1, TRP-2, gp100, HER-2, IL-13Rα2. [ImmunoCellular Therapeutics, Ltd.] Press Release

THYMISTEM Researches Stem Cell Therapies for Damaged Immune Systems
Studies show that transplanting thymus cells into patients can be an effective way to repair and restore the immune system; however the lack of a source for these specialized cells represents a major barrier. In the previous studies, scientists used cells from newborn babies that had been removed as a normal part of heart surgery. Cells from adult donors are shown not to have the same effect. The THYMISTEM team seeks to overcome this by finding new methods of producing thymus stem cells in the lab as an alternative source of cells for therapy. [European Commission] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Osteoimmune European Workshop on miRNA and the Immunesystem
April 8-10, 2014
Zurich, Switzerland

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellowship – Construction of Vaccine Molecules for Treatment of Allergic Diseases (University of Oslo)

NEW Scientific Communications & Publishing Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow Position – Examining the Impact of the Neonatal Immune System on Perinatal Brain Injury (University of Gothenburg)

Assistant/Associate Professors – Allergic Inflammation and Sensory Neurobiology (North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine)

Research Assistant – Adaptive Immune Proliferation (Cambridge Institute for Medical Research)

Postdoctoral Position – Epigenetic Regulation of Interleukin-12 Family Members (Université Libre de Bruxelles)

Associate Professor – B Cell Immunologist (Institute of Human Virology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine)

PhD Research Position – Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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