Volume 2.02 | Jan 21

Human Immunology News 2.02 January 21, 2013
Human Immunology News
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TOP STORY
Human TH9 Cells Are Skin-Tropic and Have Autocrine and Paracrine Proinflammatory Capacity
Investigators isolated T cells from human blood and tissues and found that most memory T helper type 9 (TH9) cells were skin-tropic or skin-resident. Human TH9 cells coexpressed tumor necrosis factor-α and granzyme B and lacked coproduction of TH1/TH2/TH17 cytokines, and many were specific for Candida albicans. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract
How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Clonal Heterogeneity of Thymic B Cells from Early-Onset Myasthenia Gravis Patients with Antibodies against the Acetylcholine Receptor
Using immortalization with Epstein-Barr Virus and Toll-like receptor 9 activation, the authors isolated and characterized monoclonal B cell lines from five myasthenia gravis (MG) patients and eight controls. Only 2 of 570 immortalized B cell clones from MG patients produced antibodies against the antibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) (both clones were from the same patient), suggesting that AChR-specific B cells are not enriched in the thymus. [J Autoimmun] Abstract

The Immune Phenotype May Relate to Cancer Development in Kidney Transplant Recipients
High regulatory T-cell (Treg) numbers predict recurrent cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in kidney transplant recipients, and the Treg immune phenotype may identify kidney transplant recipients at risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma and/or solid-organ cancer. To investigate this, a total of 116 kidney transplant recipients, of whom 65 had current or past cancer, were immune-phenotyped and followed up prospectively for a median of 15 months. [Kidney Int] Abstract

Cytokine Effects Induced by the Human Autoallergen α-NAC
Alpha-chain of the nascent polypeptide-associated complex (α-NAC) has been shown before to induce T cell proliferation and secretion of IFN-γ. To elucidate the immune modulating functions α-NAC may exert, the authors analyzed its effects on cytokine transcription and secretion in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, monocytes and CD4+ T cells. [J Invest Dermatol] Abstract

Biomarker Evaluation of Face Transplant Rejection: Association of Donor T Cells with Target Cell Injury
A series of 113 sequential biopsies of full facial transplants provides findings of potential translational significance as well as biological insights that could prompt reexamination of conventional paradigms of effector pathways in skin allograft rejection. [Modern Pathol] Abstract | Press Release

Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Transiently Increase Cytokine Production by Activated T Cells before Suppressing T-Cell Proliferation: Effect of Interferon-γ and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Stimulation
Investigators compared the dynamic action of unprimed and interferon-γ plus tumor necrosis factor-α-pretreated human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells on resting or activated T cells. [Cytotherapy] Abstract

Targeting IL-6 Signaling in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Is Followed by Th1 and Th17 Suppression and Th2 Expansion
Scientists investigated the in vitro and ex-vivo effect of IL-6 inhibition on the balance between Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells. The percentages of Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells were analyzed by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from controls and from rheumatoid arthritis patients at the time of first evaluation and just before the third TCZ infusion. [Clin Exp Rheumatol] Abstract

Neural Progenitor Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Generated Less Autogenous Immune Response
Through co-culture with autogenous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), researchers showed that both somatic cells and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells do not stimulate significant autogenous PBMC proliferation. However, a significant immune reaction was detected when these cells were co-cultured with allogenous PBMCs. [Sci China Life Sci] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Th17 and Regulatory T Cell Balance in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases
This review focuses on the biology of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cells and their role in inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. [Autoimmun Rev] Abstract

Different Subsets of Natural Killer T Cells May Vary in Their Roles in Health and Disease
Recent studies of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases have led to a hypothesis that while type I natural killer T (NKT) cells can promote pathogenic and regulatory responses, they are more frequently pathogenic; and that type II NKT cells are predominantly inhibitory and protective from such responses and diseases. [Immunology] Abstract | Full Article

Association of Signaling Transducers and Activators of Transcription 1 and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
The authors focus on the association of signaling transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1) and systemic lupus erythematosus based on recent understandings to render more information about the mechanisms that STAT1 might perform in. [Autoimmunity] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Biothera Research Shows Potential for Treating Imprime PGG Biomarker-Negative Cancer Patients
Biothera has enhanced innate immune responses to its cancer immunotherapy drug candidate Imprime PGG® in subjects regardless of biomarker status, demonstrating the opportunity to treat a larger patient population. [Press release from Biothera, the immune health company discussing research presented at the Cambridge Healthtech Institute’s Antibody-Drug Conjugates/Engineering Targeted Therapeutics conference, Palm Springs] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
The HUB Foundation for Organoid Technology and STEMCELL Technologies Sign Agreement on the Manufacturing of Cell Culture Media for Organoids
The HUB Foundation for Organoid Technology announced that it has signed a licensing agreement with STEMCELL Technologies Inc. for the manufacturing and worldwide distribution of cell culture media for growing Organoids. Organoids are mini-organs grown in tissue culture from small pieces of tissue derived from patients with cancer and other diseases, and represent an exciting new tool for scientific research and drug discovery and validation. [STEMCELL Technologies Inc.] Press Release

MD Anderson Announces Collaboration with Johnson & Johnson Innovation on Cancer Immunotherapy
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center will collaborate with Johnson & Johnson Innovation, LLC, and its affiliate Janssen Biotech, Inc., to develop immunology-based cancer treatments through the MD Anderson Moon Shots Program immunotherapy platform. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 12th Cancer Immunoterhapy (CIMT) Annual Meeting “Next Waves in Cancer Immunotherapy”
May 6-8, 2014
Mainz, Germany

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Epigenetic Regulation of Interleukin-12 Family Members (Université Libre de Bruxelles)

Postdoctoral Position – Allergy and Immunology (University of Southern California)

PhD Positions & MD Positions – Translational Rheumatology (Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin)

Senior Scientist – Immuno-Oncology; In Vivo Pharmacology (Genentech, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Clinical Medicine (Trinity College Dublin)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – T Cell Therapy (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Associate Professor – B Cell Immunologist (Institute of Human Virology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine)

Senior Scientist – Molecular Biology (immatics biotechnologies GmbH)

Chief Medical Officer – Novel Therapeutics in Oncology & Autoimmune Disease (Immunomedics, Inc.)

Clinical MD – Clinical Development Program for Oncology & Autoimmune Diseases (Immunomedics, Inc.)

PhD Studentship – Systems Biology and Lymphocyte Activation (University of Oxford)

PhD Research Position – Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)


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