Volume 2.00 | Jan 7

Human Immunology News 2.00 January 7, 2014
Human Immunology News
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Biologists Discover Solution to Problem Limiting Development of Human Stem Cell Therapies
Biologists have discovered an effective strategy that could prevent the human immune system from rejecting the grafts derived from human embryonic stem cells, a major problem now limiting the development of human stem cell therapies. [Press release from the University of California, San Diego discussing online prepublication in Cell Stem Cell] Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Characterization of CD4 and CD8 T Cell Responses in MuSK Myasthenia Gravis
The authors aimed to characterize T cell responses in patients with muscle specific tyrosine kinase myasthenia gravis (MuSK MG). Intracellular production of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-17, and IL-21 by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was measured by polychromatic flow cytometry in peripheral blood samples from 11 Musk MG patients and 10 healthy controls. [J Autoimmun] Abstract

The SOCS3-Independent Expression of IDO2 Supports the Homeostatic Generation of T Regulatory Cells by Human Dendritic Cells
Investigators found a different pattern of expression and regulation between IDO1 and IDO2 in human circulating dendritic cells (DCs). At the protein level, IDO1 is expressed only in circulating myeloid DCs (mDCs) and is modulated by PGE2, whereas IDO2 is expressed in both mDCs and plasmacytoid DCs and is not modulated by PGE2. [J Immunol] Abstract

Neutrophil-Mediated IFN Activation in the Bone Marrow Alters B Cell Development in Human and Murine Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Researchers report the presence of IFN activation in systemic lupus erythematosus bone marrow (BM), as measured by an IFN gene signature, increased IFN regulated chemokines, and direct production of IFN by BM-resident cells, associated with profound changes in B cell development. [J Immunol] Abstract

Role of Regulatory B Cells in Chronic Intestinal Inflammation: Association with Pathogenesis of Crohn’s Disease
Scientists investigated interleukin-10 production in B cells from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and immunoregulatory functions of regulatory B cells in experimental colitis mouse models. [Inflamm Bowel Dis] Abstract

Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase Regulates TLR9 but Not TLR7 Signaling in Human Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells
Investigators identified the Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) as an important player for TLR9 but not TLR7 signaling in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs). Blocking Btk using a specific inhibitor leads to the reduction of all TLR9-induced responses in PDCs, including cytokine production and expression of costimulatory molecules, while this has no impact on the TLR7 response. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

Targeting the Programmed Cell Death 1: Programmed Cell Death Ligand 1 Pathway Reverses T Cell Exhaustion in Patients with Sepsis
Researchers tested the ability of anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and anti-programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibodies to prevent apoptosis and improve lymphocyte function in septic patients. Lymphocytes from septic patients produced decreased interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 and had increased CD8 T cell expression of PD-1 and decreased PD-L1 expression compared to non-septic patients. [Crit Care]
| Full Article

Changes of Th17/Tc17 and Th17/Treg Cells in Endometrial Carcinoma
Scientists assessed the expression of interleukin (IL)-17 and Foxp3 in the peripheral blood of endometrial carcinoma patients and healthy controls by flow cytometry to determine the relative numbers of T helper 17 (Th17), T cytotoxic 17 (Tc17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells. The frequencies of Th17, Tc17 and Treg cells, as well as the serum level of IL-10, were significantly elevated in endometrial carcinoma patients compared to healthy controls. [Gynecol Oncol] Abstract

Selective Activation of Human Dendritic Cells by OM-85 through a NF-kB and MAPK Dependent Pathway
The authors investigated the impact of OM-85 stimulation on human dendritic cell (DC) functions. They showed that OM-85 selectively induced NF-kB and MAPK activation in human DC with no detectable action on the interferon regulatory factor pathway. [PLoS One] Full Article

Anti-Melanoma Activity of T Cells Redirected with a TCR-Like Chimeric Antigen Receptor
A TCR-like chimeric receptor, specific for the melanoma-related gp100/HLA-A2 complex was created by joining a TCR-like antibody GPA7 with the endodomains of CD28 and CD3-ζ chain. This TCR-like CAR, GPA7-28z, was subsequently introduced into human T cells. Retargeted T cells expressing GPA7-28z could exhibit efficient cytotoxic activities against human melanoma cells in vitro in the context with HLA-A2. [Sci Rep] Abstract

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Dendritic Cells as Targets or Therapeutics in Rheumatic Autoimmune Disease
This review covers recent advances in the field of dendritic cells as targets or therapeutics in rheumatic autoimmune disease. Key themes include the phenotypic and functional characterization, lineage relationships and transcription factors involved in the development of the various dendritic cell subsets. [Curr Opin Rheumatol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.

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Memorial Sloan-Kettering Shares Historic Gift to Fund Immunotherapy Research
Memorial Sloan-Kettering is one of six elite academic institutions to share an unprecedented total of $540 million from Ludwig Cancer Research, on behalf of its founder Daniel K. Ludwig, with Memorial Sloan-Kettering’s funding going to support research that builds on its groundbreaking work in the field of cancer immunotherapy. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center] Press Release

MD Anderson Teams Up with Pfizer to Advance Cancer Immunotherapy
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and Pfizer will collaborate in the development of immune-based approaches to cancer treatment, the first such agreement made through MD Anderson’s Moon Shots Program immunotherapy platform. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center] Press Release

Peregrine Pharmaceuticals Receives FDA Fast Track Designation for Its Immunotherapy Bavituximab as a Potential Treatment of Second-Line Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Peregrine Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that the company has received Fast Track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for its lead investigational immunotherapy bavituximab for the potential treatment of second-line non-small cell lung cancer. Recently, the company initiated SUNRISE, a pivotal Phase III clinical trial comparing bavituximab plus the chemotherapy docetaxel against placebo plus docetaxel in this indication. [Peregrine Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

DiaVacs’s Immunotherapy Product for Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes Receives Orphan Drug Status Designation from the FDA
DiaVacs, Inc. announced that the Office of Orphan Products Development of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted orphan drug designation for the company’s type 1 diabetes mellitus therapy. The therapy halt’s the body’s autoimmune reaction against the pancreatic islet cells which are responsible for producing insulin, thus allowing them to produce insulin normally and reversing the trajectory of the disease. [PR Newswire Association LLC] Press Release

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NEW 44th Annual Meeting of German Society for Immunology
September 17-20, 2014
Bonn, Germany

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
NEW Postdoctoral Research Fellow – T Cell Therapy (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Murine and Human Skin Immunology (Karolinska Institutet)

NEW Associate Professor – B Cell Immunologist (Institute of Human Virology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine)

Senior Scientist – Molecular Biology (immatics biotechnologies GmbH)

Bioinformatics Positions – Transcriptional Signatures of Vaccine Immunity in Humans (Emory Vaccine Center)

Chief Medical Officer – Novel Therapeutics in Oncology and Autoimmune Disease (Immunomedics, Inc.)

Clinical MD – Clinical Development Program for Oncology and Autoimmune Diseases (Immunomedics, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Wound Healing/Fibrosis Research (University of Connecticut Health Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Tumor Immunology (National University of Singapore)

PhD Studentship – Systems Biology and Lymphocyte Activation (University of Oxford)

PhD Research Position – Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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