Volume 1.39 | Dec 10

Human Immunology News 1.39 December 10, 2013
Human Immunology News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Cancer Mutation Likely Trigger of Scleroderma
Scientists have found evidence that cancer triggers the autoimmune disease scleroderma, which causes thickening and hardening of the skin and widespread organ damage. Research also suggests that a normal immune system is critical for preventing the development of common types of cancer. [Press release from Johns Hopkins University discussing online prepublication in Science]
Abstract
| Press Release
Learn more about the new smartphone app for human blood cell frequencies
 
PUBLICATIONS ( Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Regulatory T Cell Proliferative Potential Is Impaired in Human Autoimmune Disease
Investigators report that proliferation of regulatory T cells after T cell receptor stimulation is impaired in subjects with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis because of altered interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion and IL-2 receptor-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 signaling. [Nat Med] Abstract

Therapeutic Activation of Macrophages and Microglia to Suppress Brain Tumor-Initiating Cells
Scientists examined whether the microglia and macrophages that are abundant in gliomas alter brain tumor initiating cell (BTIC) growth. They found that microglia derived from non-glioma human subjects markedly mitigated the sphere-forming capacity of glioma patient-derived BTICs in culture by inducing the expression of genes that control cell cycle arrest and differentiation. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract | Press Release

IL-2 Therapy Promotes Suppressive ICOS+ Treg Expansion in Melanoma Patients
Investigators evaluated Treg population subsets that were induced in patients with melanoma following high-dose IL-2 therapy. They identified a Treg population that was positive for CD4, CD25, Foxp3, and the inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS). [J Clin Invest] Abstract | Press Release

Digital Genomic Quantification of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes
The authors’ experiments demonstrated an association between higher tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes counts and improved survival among women with ovarian cancer, and are consistent with previous observations that the immune response against ovarian cancer is a meaningful and independent prognostic factor. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

Transfer of Antigen from Human B Cells to Dendritic Cells
The cooperation of B lymphocytes with other antigen presenting cells (APCs) is often necessary in the efficient processing and presentation of antigen. Scientists describe a mechanism by which B cells physically interact with dendritic cells resulting in the transfer of B cell receptor-enriched antigen to these APCs. [Mol Immunol] Abstract

Cladribine Exerts an Immunomodulatory Effect on Human and Murine Dendritic Cells
The authors demonstrated that cladribine reduces the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by murine and human dendritic cells, the most potent antigen-presenting cells. [Int Immunopharmacol] Abstract

Peripheral and Site-Specific CD4+CD28null T Cells from Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Show Distinct Characteristics
Researchers sought to identify functional differences between CD4+CD28null T cells from blood and synovial fluid in comparison to conventional CD28 expressing CD4+ T cells. [Scand J Immunol] Abstract
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REVIEWS
Innate Immune Cells in Transplantation
This review highlights the new therapeutic targets in the innate immune system that may be useful in the treatment of transplant recipients. It also emphasizes the need to use caution in exploring these new therapeutics. [Curr Opin Ogran Transpl] Abstract

B-Lymphocyte Tolerance and Effector Function in Immunity and Autoimmunity
The authors discuss how gene expression and signaling networks regulate peripheral B-cell tolerance, B-cell effector functions and emerging therapies targeting B-cell signaling in autoimmune diseases. [Immunol Res] Abstract

Regulatory Dendritic Cell Therapy: From Rodents to Clinical Application
This mini-review outlines how observations made using animal models have been translated into human use, and discuss the challenges faced in further developing this form of regulatory immune cell therapy in the fields of autoimmunity and transplantation. [Immunol Lett] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Research Study of T Cell Immunotherapy Continues to Show Highly Promising Results in Children and Adults with Leukemia
Nearly 90 percent of children and adults with a highly aggressive form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia showed no evidence of cancer after receiving a novel, personalized cell therapy that reprograms a patient’s immune system. In pilot studies of bioengineered T cells that attack leukemia, 24 of 27 patients experienced complete responses within 28 days after treatment. [Press release from The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia discussing research presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology (ASH), New Orleans] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
NewLink Genetics Initiates Phase I Clinical Trial of NLG919, a Novel Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor for Cancer Immunotherapy
NewLink Genetics Corporation announced the initiation of a first in human Phase I clinical trial of NLG919. This is NewLink’s second IDO (indoleamine-(2,3)-dioxygenase) pathway inhibitor that will initially be tested in patients with recurrent advanced solid tumors. NLG919 is a small-molecule, orally bioavailable, immune checkpoint inhibitor designed to counteract a fundamental mechanism by which tumors evade immune-mediated destruction. [NewLink Genetics Corporation] Press Release

Qu Biologics Begins Research with McMaster University to Study New Crohn’s Disease Research Model
Qu Biologics Inc., a biopharmaceutical company developing Site Specific Immunomodulators that aim to stimulate the body’s immune system against autoimmune disease and cancer, announced it is collaborating with McMaster University to study a new Crohn’s disease research model. [Qu Biologics Inc.] Press Release

The Oracle of the T Cell
As of December 2013 scientists from around the world can use the “virtual T cell” to test for themselves what happens in the blood cell when receptor proteins are activated on the surface. [University of Freiburg]
Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Spring 2014 Meeting of the Canadian Society for Immunology
March 6-9, 2014
Quebec City, Canada

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Bioinformatics Positions – Transcriptional Signatures of Vaccine Immunity in Humans (Emory Vaccine Center)

Chief Medical Officer – Novel Therapeutics in Oncology and Autoimmune Disease (Immunomedics, Inc.)

Clinical MD – Clinical Development Program for Oncology and Autoimmune Diseases (Immunomedics, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Research Position – Immunology (Sanofi R&D)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Wound Healing/Fibrosis Research (University of Connecticut Health Center)

Postdoctoral Research Scientist – Immunology Research (The Babraham Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Tumor Immunology (National University of Singapore)

PhD Studentship – Systems Biology and Lymphocyte Activation (University of Oxford)

Postdoctoral Research Position – Immunology (Singapore Immunology Network [SIgN])

PhD Research Position – Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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