Volume 1.36 | Nov 19

Human Immunology News 1.36 November 19, 2013
Human Immunology News
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Naive and Memory Human B Cells Have Distinct Requirements for STAT3 Activation to Differentiate into Antibody-Secreting Plasma Cells
Investigators previously showed that loss-of-function mutations in STAT3, but not STAT1, abrogate IL-10- and IL-21-mediated differentiation of human naive B cells into plasmablasts. They report here that, in contrast to naive B cells, STAT3-deficient memory B cells responded to these STAT3-activating cytokines, differentiating into plasmablasts and secreting high levels of IgM, IgG, and IgA, as well as antigen-specific IgG. [J Exp Med] Abstract | Press Release
How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles
PUBLICATIONS ( Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Expression Drives Human Regulatory T Cell Resistance to Posttransplantation Cyclophosphamide
Scientists studied early T cell reconstitution in patients undergoing allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation with posttransplantation cyclophosphamide and the effects of mafosfamide, a cyclophosphamide analog, on CD4+ T cells in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions in vitro. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

Human Treg Responses Allow Sustained Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Transgene Expression
To determine whether recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector expression can persist long term, researchers administered rAAV vectors expressing normal, M-type α-1 antitrypsin (M-AAT) to AAT-deficient subjects at various doses by multiple i.m. injections. M-specific AAT expression was observed in all subjects in a dose-dependent manner and was sustained for more than one year in the absence of immune suppression. [J Clin Invest] Full Article | Press Release

Combining Antibody-Directed Presentation of IL-15 and 4-1BBL in a Trifunctional Fusion Protein for Cancer Immunotherapy
Scientists propose the combination of IL-15 and 4-1BBL in a single, tumor-directed molecule. Therefore, a trifunctional antibody-fusion protein was generated, composed of a tumor-specific recombinant antibody, IL-15 linked to a fragment of the IL-15Rα chain and the extracellular domain of 4-1BBL. [Mol Cancer Ther] Abstract

Glucocorticoid Inhibition of Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase Expression in Human B Lymphocytes
Researchers demonstrated that physiologic concentrations of glucocorticoids can act on human B lymphocytes through glucocorticoid receptor-mediated mechanisms to diminish the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase, a key regulator of humoral immune responses. [Mol Cell Endocrinol] Abstract

ApoE Production in Human Monocytes and Its Regulation by Inflammatory Cytokines
Investigators studied apoE production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and analysis was made with a newly developed apoE ELISpot assay. In PBMC, apoE secretion was restricted to monocytes with classical (CD14++CD16) and intermediate (CD14+CD16+) monocytes being the main producers. [PLoS One] Full Article

Measuring T Cell Receptor and T Cell Gene Expression Diversity in Antigen-Responsive Human CD4+ T Cells
Researchers developed a methodology for sequencing expressed genes of TCR alpha and beta chains from single cells and applied this to vaccine (tetanus-toxoid)-responsive CD4+ T cells. TCR alpha and beta chains were both successfully sequenced in 1309 of 3038 CD4+ T cells yielding 677 different receptors. [J Immunol Methods] Abstract

Homogeneous Expansion of Human T-Regulatory Cells Via Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2
With the goal of producing homogeneous T-regulatory cells (Tregs), the authors developed a novel expansion protocol targeting tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFR) on Tregs. In in vitro studies, a TNFR2 agonist was found superior to standard methods in proliferating human Tregs into a phenotypically homogeneous population consisting of 14 cell surface markers. [Sci Rep] Full Article
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Emerging Cell and Cytokine Targets in Rheumatoid Arthritis
New cytokine-directed therapies target important proinflammatory mediators such as GM-CSF, new members of the IL-1 family, IL-6 and its receptor, IL-17, IL-20, IL-21, IL-23 as well as synovium-specific targets. The authors review these emerging cell and cytokine targets with special focus on biologic agents, some of which might reach the clinic soon whereas others will require considerable time in development. [Nat Rev Rheumatol] Abstract

Tumoricidal Activity of Human Dendritic Cells
Recent results have provided intriguing evidence that both myeloid dendritic cell (DC) and plasmacytoid DC subsets can function as direct cytotoxic effector cells; in particular, against cancer cells. In this review, the authors delve into this understudied function of human DCs and discuss why these so-called killer DCs might become important tools in future cancer immunotherapies. [Trends Immunol] Abstract

The Evolving Art of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Translational Research in Post-Transplant Immune Reconstitution and Immunosuppression
Translational laboratory efforts, facilitated by technical advances in the ability to measure thymopoiesis and functional T cell subsets in humans, have resulted in an improved understanding of immune recovery and have provided novel insights that may lead to more rational and selective immunosuppression. [Immunol Res] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.
Innovative Vaccine Trains Immune System to Fight Melanoma
Loyola University Medical Center is enrolling melanoma patients in the first clinical trial in the Midwest of an experimental vaccine that trains a patient’s immune system to fight the deadly cancer. [Newswise, Inc]
Press Release

National MS Society Partners with Accelerated Cure Project’s MS Discovery Forum to Drive Research Connections for Progressive MS
The National Multiple Sclerosis Society is partnering with the Accelerated Cure Project’s Multiple Sclerosis Discovery Forum to develop resources and content focusing on progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Promoting engagement by the research community on issues in progressive MS is one aspect of a multifaceted approach to increasing progress in this underexplored area of research. [National Multiple Sclerosis Society]
Press Release

National MS Society Commits $19.4 Million in 38 New Research Projects
The National MS Society has just launched 38 new multiple sclerosis (MS) research projects, with multiyear commitments totalling $19.4 million. Through the collective efforts of each person in the MS movement, the Society invested over 48 million dollars alone in 2013 to fund 380 research projects around the world. [National Multiple Sclerosis Society] Press Release

University of Buffalo Study Aims to Reactivate Cancer-Killing Cells
With the ultimate goal of designing new immunotherapeutic strategies, Richard B. Bankert, VMD, PhD and his team are working to re-activate cancer-killing T cells in a tumor microenvironment. To explore accomplishing this goal by blocking the activity of lipids that suppress a healthy immune response, Bankert has received a $1.66 million, five-year grant from the National Cancer Institute. [University of Buffalo]
Press Release

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NEW IMMUNOLOGY 2014 – The American Association of Immunology (AAI) Annual Meeting
May 2-6, 2014
Pittsburgh, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
NEW Postdoctoral Research Scientist – Immunology Research (The Babraham Institute)

NEW Faculty Positions – Cancer Biology and Immunology (Vaccine & Gene Therapy Institute of Florida)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Tumor Immunology (National University of Singapore)

PhD Studentship – Systems Biology and Lymphocyte Activation (University of Oxford)

Post-Doctoral Fellows – Human Immunology (Vaccine & Gene Therapy Institute of Florida)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Characterizing the Immunosuppressive Impact of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on T Cells (FDA: Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research)

Postdoctoral Research Position – Immunology (Singapore Immunology Network [SIgN])

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunotherapy (Washington University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Autoimmunity (University of Chicago)

PhD Research Position – Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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