Volume 1.35 | Nov 12

Human Immunology News 1.35 November 12, 2013
Human Immunology News
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A Molecular Basis for the Association of the HLA-DRB1 Locus, Citrullination, and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis is strongly associated with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 locus that possesses the shared susceptibility epitope and the citrullination of self-antigens. Scientists showed how citrullinated aggrecan and vimentin epitopes bind to HLA-DRB1*04:01/04. [J Exp Med] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS ( Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Diminished Allergic Disease in Patients with STAT3 Mutations Reveals a Role for STAT3 Signaling in Mast Cell Degranulation
Researchers conducted clinical evaluation of the rates of food allergies and anaphylaxis in patients with autosomal-dominant hyper-IgE syndrome, a cohort of patients with no STAT3 mutation but with similar histories of elevated IgE and atopic dermatitis, and healthy volunteers with no history of atopy. [J Allergy Clin Immunol] Abstract

Adverse Fetal Outcomes Associated with Immunosuppressive Medications for Chronic Immune Mediated Diseases in Pregnancy
Researchers assessed the risk of adverse fetal outcomes following exposure to individual immunosuppressive drugs in pregnant women with chronic immune mediated diseases. [Arthritis Rheum] Abstract | Press Release

Autoimmune Disorders and Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccination of Young Female Subjects
Scientists investigated whether the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine Gardasil is associated with a change in the risk of autoimmune disorders in young female subjects. [J Intern Med] Abstract

Exosomes Secreted by Human Placenta Carry Functional Fas Ligand and TRAIL Molecules and Convey Apoptosis in Activated Immune Cells, Suggesting Exosome-Mediated Immune Privilege of the Fetus
Scientists investigated the expression and in vitro apoptotic activity of two physiologically relevant death messengers, the TNF family members Fas ligand and TRAIL in human early and term placentas. [J Immunol] Abstract

Impact of 3D Printed PLA and Chitosan-Based Scaffolds on Human Monocyte/Macrophage Responses: Unraveling the Effect of 3D Structures on Inflammation
Understanding and having the capacity to regulate the inflammatory response elicited by 3D scaffolds aimed for tissue regeneration is crucial. Researchers report on the analysis of the cytokine profile of human monocytes/macrophages in contact with biodegradable 3D scaffolds with different surface properties, architecture and controlled pore geometry, fabricated by 3D printing technology. [ Acta Biomater] Abstract

Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibition at Disease Onset Prevents Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Progression through Immunoregulatory and Neuroprotective Actions
Scientists showed that sildenafil enhances the ability of human T regulatory cells from healthy donors to down-regulate the proliferation of T effector cells in vitro, strongly supporting the potential of sildenafil for therapeutic intervention in multiple sclerosis. [Exp Neurol] Abstract

Pulmonary Endothelial Protein Kinase C-Delta (PKCδ) Regulates Neutrophil Migration in Acute Lung Inflammation
To delineate the role of PKCδ in regulating neutrophil migration, investigators used an in vitro transmigration model with human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. [Am J Pathol] Abstract

CD14hiHLA-DRdim Macrophages, with a Resemblance to Classical Blood Monocytes, Dominate Inflamed Mucosa in Crohn’s Disease
Scientists characterized CD14+ mononuclear cell populations in intestinal mucosa and blood in patients with CD. Among the LP CD14+ Mϕ, they identified three distinct HLA-DR+-expressing subsets. Compared with uninflamed, inflamed mucosa contained a marked increase in the proportion of the CD14hiHLA-DRdim cellular subset. [J Leukoc Biol] Abstract

Evaluation of All Non-Synonymous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Genes Encoding Human Deoxyribonuclease I and I-Like 3 as a Functional SNP Potentially Implicated in Autoimmunity
The authors aimed to evaluate all of the non-synonymous SNPs in the DNase 1 and 1L3 genes, potentially implicated in autoimmune diseases, as a functional SNP in terms of alteration of the activity levels. They examined the genotype distributions of the 32 and 20 non-synonymous SNPs in DNASE1 and DNASE1L3, respectively, in three ethnic groups, and the effect of these SNPs on the DNase activities. [FEBS J] Abstract

Expansion of Intestinal Prevotella copri Correlates with Enhanced Susceptibility to Arthritis
Researchers performed 16S sequencing on 114 stool samples from rheumatoid arthritis patients and controls, and shotgun sequencing on a subset of 44 such samples. They identified the presence of Prevotella copri as strongly correlated with disease in new-onset untreated rheumatoid arthritis patients. [eLife] Full Article | Press Release
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New Therapeutic Approaches for Protecting Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Aplastic Anemia
The authors briefly review standard and developing approaches for treating aplastic anemia (AA) and describe development and testing of novel treatment approach with a potential to safely reduce bone marrow hypoplasia and significantly decrease the loss of hematopoietic stem cells in a mouse lymphocyte infusion model of AA. [Immunol Res] Abstract

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UbiVac Opens Trial of Next Generation Lung Cancer Vaccine
UbiVac announced the results of a Phase I clinical trial and the initiation of a Phase II clinical trial of its first-in-class autophagosome DRibble vaccine, DPV-001. [Press release from PR Newswire Association LLC discussing research presented at the 15th World Conference for Lung Cancer, Sydney] Press Release

Merck’s Investigational Grass Sublingual Allergy Immunotherapy Tablet Significantly Reduced Allergy Symptoms and Need for Symptom-Relief Medication in Adults and Children in Pivotal Phase III Study
Merck announced data for its investigational Timothy grass sublingual allergy immunotherapy tablet (MK-7243) from a study involving 1,501 North American adult and pediatric patients. Results showed that MK-7243 demonstrated significant improvement in Total Combined Score averaged over the entire grass pollen season (the primary endpoint), which was the sum of the rhinoconjunctivitis daily symptom score and the daily medication score, compared to placebo. [Press release from Merck & Co., Inc. discussing research presented at the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Annual Scientific Meeting, Baltimore] Press Release

Argos Therapeutics Presents Data Showing Memory T Cell Expansion after Administration of Fully Personalized Immunotherapy Correlates with Overall Survival Benefit in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma
Argos Therapeutics Inc. presented an analysis of data from its Phase II clinical trial showing that treatment with AGS-003, the company´s lead product candidate, in combination with sunitinib, induced memory T cell responses in metastatic renal cell cancer patients that correlated with statistical significance to overall survival. [Press Release from Argos Therapeutics Inc. discussing research presented at the 28th Annual Meeting of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer, National Harbor] Press Release

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Roswell Park Researchers Receive Almost $7 Million in Grant Support for Cancer Research Efforts
Roswell Park Cancer Institute announced that several faculty members have collectively received more than $6.7 million in grant funding from federal agencies and other sources. These awards help fund important research that aims to develop new approaches to prevent and treat cancer and to improve our patients’ quality of life. Of those, Kelvin P. Lee, MD, Chair of the Department of Immunology, received three grants totaling more than $3.9 million. [Roswell Park Cancer Institute] Press Release

STEMCELL Technologies Receives Government of Canada Support to Develop New Cell Isolation Technology that Will Enable Advancements in the Study of the Immune Response to HIV and the Development of HIV Vaccines
STEMCELL Technologies announced that the National Research Council of Canada Industrial Research Assistance Program will provide up to $1.5 million in financial support for the development of cell isolation technology that will further basic and translational HIV research as well as broader research in infectious disease. [STEMCELL Technologies Inc.] Press Release
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NEW Midwinter Conference of Immunologists 2014
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NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Tumor Immunology (National University of Singapore)

PhD Studentship – Systems Biology and Lymphocyte Activation (University of Oxford)

Post-Doctoral Fellows – Human Immunology (Vaccine & Gene Therapy Institute of Florida)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Characterizing the Immunosuppressive Impact of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on T Cells (FDA: Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research)

Postdoctoral Research Position – Immunology (Singapore Immunology Network [SIgN])

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunotherapy (Washington University School of Medicine)

PhD Fellowship – Chronic Vagus Nerve Stimulation as Therapy for Colitis (KU Leuven)

Postdoctoral Position – Autoimmunity (University of Chicago)

PhD Research Position – Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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