Volume 1.34 | Nov 5

Human Immunology News 1.34 November 5, 2013
Human Immunology News
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TOP STORY
Transplantation of Human Islets without Immunosuppression
The authors present the clinical success of using a bioartificial pancreas for the transplantation of insulin-producing islets without affecting the immune system. In a patient with long-standing type-1 diabetes, they could demonstrate persistent graft function and regulated insulin secretion without the need for immune-modulating medication. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release
Learn more about the new smartphone app for human blood cell frequencies
 
PUBLICATIONS ( Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
OX40 Is a Potent Immune Stimulating Target in Late Stage Cancer Patients
Patients treated with one course of anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody showed an acceptable toxicity profile and regression of at least one metastatic lesion in 12/30 patients. Mechanistically, this treatment increased T and B cell responses to reporter antigen immunizations, led to preferential upregulation of OX40 on CD4+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and increased the anti-tumor reactivity of T and B cells in patients with melanoma. [Cancer Res] Abstract

Neutrophil Uptake of Nitrogen-Bisphosphonates Leads to the Suppression of Human Peripheral Blood γδ T Cells
Investigators showed that neutrophils present in human peripheral blood readily take up zoledronate, and this phenomenon is associated with the potent immune suppression of human peripheral blood Vγ9Vd2 T cells. [Cell Mol Life Sci] Abstract

Exosomes Secreted by Human Placenta Carry Functional Fas Ligand and TRAIL Molecules and Convey Apoptosis in Activated Immune Cells, Suggesting Exosome-Mediated Immune Privilege of the Fetus
Using immunoelectron microscopy, researchers showed that Fas ligand (FasL) and TRAIL are expressed on the limiting membrane of multivesicular bodies where, by membrane invagination, intraluminal microvesicles carrying membranal bioactive FasL and TRAIL are formed and released in the extracellular space as exosomes. [J Immunol] Abstract

Intratumoral Regulatory T Cells Upregulate Immunosuppressive Molecules in Head and Neck Cancer Patients
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from a cohort of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. The immunosuppressive phenotypes and function of intratumoral regulatory T cells (Treg) were compared with those of peripheral blood Treg. [Br J Cancer] Abstract

Durable Antibody Responses Following One Dose of the Bivalent Human Papillomavirus L1 Virus-Like Particle Vaccine in the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial
The Costa Rica HPV16/18 Vaccine Trial showed that four-year vaccine efficacy against 12-month HPV16/18 persistent infection was similarly high among women who received one, two, or the recommended three doses of the bivalent HPV16/18 L1 virus-like particle vaccine. Live-attenuated viral vaccines, but not simple-subunit vaccines, usually induce durable lifelong antibody responses after a single dose. [Cancer Prev Res] Abstract | Press Release

Differential CTLA-4 Expression in Human CD4+ versus CD8+ T Cells Is Associated with Increased NFAT1 and Inhibition of CD4+ Proliferation
The authors analyzed cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) in normal human CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets and showed for the first time that CTLA-4 is expressed significantly higher in the CD4+ T cells than in CD8+ T cells. CTLA-4 is higher at the protein and the transcriptional levels in CD4+ T cells. [Genes Immun] Abstract

Critical Role of Spatial Interaction between CD8+ and Foxp3+ Cells in Human Gastric Cancer: The Distance Matters
Researchers investigated the concurrent spatial distribution pattern of CD8+ and FoxP3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and their prognostic impact in human gastric cancer. [Cancer Immunol Immunother] Abstract

Adjuvant System AS02V Enhances Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Pneumococcal Protein PhtD Vaccine in Healthy Young and Older Adults: Randomized, Controlled Trials
Researchers evaluated humoral and cellular immune responses and safety/reactogenicity following immunization with neumococcal histidine triad protein D vaccine with or without adjuvant (alum or AS02V) in older (=65 years) and young (18-45 years) healthy adults. [Vaccine] Abstract

APL-1, an Altered Peptide Ligand Derived from Human Heat-Shock Protein 60, Selectively Induces Apoptosis in Activated CD4+ CD25+ T Cells from Peripheral Blood of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients
Scientists investigated the ability of APL-1 in inducing apoptosis in PBMCs from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, who were classified as active or inactive according to their DAS28 score. APL-1 decreased the viability of PBMCs from active but not from inactive RA patients. DNA fragmentation assays and typical morphological features clearly demonstrated that APL-1 induced apoptosis in these cells. [Int Immunopharmacol] Abstract

Effects of Vitamin D3, Calcipotriol and FTY720 on the Expression of Surface Molecules and Cytolytic Activities of Human Natural Killer Cells and Dendritic Cells
Researchers describe the effects of three drugs that are either approved or have the potential for treating multiple sclerosis patients through the in vitro activities of human natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells (DCs). Their results indicate that 1,25(OH)2D3, the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D3, calcipotriol and FTY720 augment IL-2-activated NK cell lysis of K562 and RAJI tumor cell lines as well as immature and mature DCs, with variable efficacies. [Toxins] Abstract | Full Article

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REVIEWS
The CD4-Centered Universe of Human T Cell Subsets
The authors review the current knowledge on features and functions of human α/β T cell subsets, focusing on CD4+ T cells classified according to cytokine production and tissue localization. [Semin Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.

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INDUSTRY NEWS
arGEN-X and de Duve Institute/UCL to Collaborate on Novel Immunomodulation Therapy in Cancer
arGEN-X announced the signing of a research and license agreement with de Duve Institute/UCL (Belgium). Under the terms of the agreement, the parties will closely collaborate to use arGEN-X’ SIMPLE Antibody™ technology in validating the biology of a novel cancer immunomodulation target and creating functional leads with therapeutic potential. [arGEN-X] Abstract

New Partnership between GSK and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to Accelerate Research into Vaccines for Global Health Needs
GSK and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) announced the launch of a new joint initiative that will endeavor to make vaccines more resistant to heat, thus reducing the need for refrigeration. GSK and BMGF will invest a combined $1.8 million in early stage research into vaccine thermostability. [GlaxoSmithKline plc.] Abstract

NanoBio Awarded Up to $10 Million in NIH Funding to Develop a Pandemic Influenza Vaccine
NanoBio Corporation announced that the company has been awarded an initial contract worth $5.5 million from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), to develop a nanoemulsion adjuvant for use with a pandemic influenza vaccine. [NanoBio Corporation] Abstract

BMJ and LFA Join Forces to Publish First Open Access Journal Dedicated to Lupus
International knowledge healthcare provider BMJ and the Lupus Foundation of America (LFA) have announced that they have joined forces to publish the first open access journal dedicated to the poorly understood and potentially life threatening disease, lupus. [Lupus Foundation of America] Abstract

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 8th World Immune Regulation Meeting
March 19-22, 2014
Davos, Switzerland

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW PhD Studentship – Systems Biology and Lymphocyte Activation (University of Oxford)

NEW Post-Doctoral Fellows – Human Immunology (Vaccine & Gene Therapy Institute of Florida)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Characterizing the Immunosuppressive Impact of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on T Cells (FDA: Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research)

Postdoctoral Research Position – Immunology (Singapore Immunology Network [SIgN])

Research Fellow – Cellular Immunity in Type 1 Diabetes (King’s College London)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunotherapy (Washington University School of Medicine)

PhD Fellowship – Chronic Vagus Nerve Stimulation as Therapy for Colitis (KU Leuven)

Postdoctoral Position – Autoimmunity (University of Chicago)

PhD Research Position – Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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