Volume 1.29 | Oct 1

Human Immunology News 1.29 October 1, 2013
Human Immunology News
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TOP STORY
Genetic Variants Regulating Immune Cell Levels in Health and Disease
Investigators report genetic contributions to quantitative levels of 95 cell types encompassing 272 immune traits, in a cohort of 1,629 individuals from four clustered Sardinian villages. [Cell]
Abstract
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How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
CVID-Associated TACI Mutations Affect Autoreactive B Cell Selection and Activation
To assess how the number of TACI mutations affects B cell activation and tolerance checkpoints, the authors analyzed healthy individuals and common variable immune deficiency (CVID) patients carrying one or two TACI mutations. They found that TACI interacts with the cleaved, mature forms of TLR7 and TLR9 and plays an important role during B cell activation and the central removal of autoreactive B cells in healthy donors and CVID patients. [J Clin Invest] Full Article | Press Release

Human CD4+CD3 Innate-Like T Cells Provide a Source of TNF and Lymphotoxin-αβ and Are Elevated in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Investigators identified a rare human CD4+CD3 innate-like lymphoid population with high TNF expression that is enriched in blood from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. These CD4+CD3 cells belong to the T cell lineage, but the lack of AgR at the cell surface renders them nonresponsive to TCR-directed stimuli. [J Immunol] Abstract

cAMP Responsive Element Modulator (CREM)α Trans-Represses the Transmembrane Glycoprotein CD8 and Contributes to the Generation of CD3+CD4-CD8- T Cells in Health and Disease
The authors demonstrated that transcription factor CREMα, which is expressed at increased levels in T cells from systemic lupus erythematosus patients, contributes to transcriptional silencing of CD8A and CD8B. They provide first evidence that CREMα trans-represses a regulatory element 5 of the CD8B gene. [J Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article

Polymorphisms within Toll-Like Receptors Are Associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematous in a Cohort of Danish Females
The authors examined whether polymorphisms of toll-like receptor (TLR) genes are associated with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) and to determine the expression of various TLRs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with SLE. [Rheumatology] Abstract

Circulating TFH Subset Distribution Is Strongly Affected in Lupus Patients with an Active Disease
Follicular helper T cells (TFH) subsets that share common phenotypic and functional characteristics with TFH cells from germinal centers, have been described in the peripheral blood from healthy individuals. Researchers analyzed the distribution of such populations in lupus patients. [PLoS One] Full Article

Immunogenicity and Safety of Two Doses of a Non-Adjuvanted Influenza A H1N1/2009 Vaccine in Young Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases Patients
Researchers aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the influenza A H1N1/2009 vaccine in children under 9 years old with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD). Thirty-eight ARD patients and 11 healthy children received two doses of non-adjuvanted influenza A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) virus-like vaccine. [Lupus] Abstract

CMV Induces Rapid NK Cell Maturation in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Recipients
In individuals experiencing human cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation after transplantation, natural killer (NK) cells rapidly achieved a fully differentiated stage of maturation, characterized by a KIR+NKG2ANKG2C+CD57+p75/AIRM1 surface phenotype. Patients who never had human CMV reactivation maintained an immature NK phenotype for a long time. Thus, HCMV reactivation, by providing stimulatory signals to maturing NK cells, could be beneficial rather than detrimental. [Immunol Lett] Abstract

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REVIEWS
The Emerging Role of Autoimmunity in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/cfs)
The authors review the potential sources of autoimmunity which are observed in people with ME/cfs. The increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and increased levels of nuclear factor-κB predispose to an autoimmune environment. [Mol Neurobiol] Abstract

Down-Regulating Humoral Immune Responses: Implications for Organ Transplantation
This review examines the regulatory steps that are involved in the generation of alloreactive B cells, with a specific emphasis on how known mechanisms relate to clinical situations in transplant recipients. [Transplantation] Abstract

Novel Perspectives on Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy of Cancer
The authors discuss the present pitfalls of dendritic cell vaccines for the treatment of human cancer with regard to the most recent knowledge in the biology of dendritic cells (DCs). In particular, they highlight the relevance of improving the current understanding of DC trafficking, functions and interactions with other cells of innate immunity for the development of more effective cancer vaccines. [Immunol Lett] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Medimmune and University of Maryland, Baltimore Announce Five-Year, $6 Million Research Collaboration to Drive Science Innovation in Maryland
MedImmune and the University of Maryland, Baltimore announced they have entered into a five-year, $6 million collaboration to drive novel bioscience research in the state of Maryland. The research projects will be focused on MedImmune’s core therapeutic areas, including cardiovascular and metabolic disease; oncology; respiratory, inflammation and autoimmunity; and infectious disease. [MedImmune, LLC] Press Release

EMD Serono Exclusive Supporter of Newly Launched Multiple Sclerosis Resource Centre
EMD Serono, Inc., a subsidiary of Merck KGaA, is the founding supporter of the newly launched Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Resource Centre website developed by Elsevier, B.V. of the Netherlands. EMD Serono helped established the MS Resource Centre through a $250,000 unrestricted grant to Elsevier, B.V. to develop and launch the website, which will provide high quality, balanced and scientifically valid information to health care providers. [EMD Serono, Inc.] Press Release

From our sponsor: Free Nature Reviews Immunology poster – Immune Response to HIV. Request a copy.
 
POLICY NEWS
US Government Shuts Down
The US government entered a state of suspended animation on 1 October after Congress failed to agree on a budget for the next fiscal year, causing federal agencies – including those overseeing science policy and research – to shut down indefinitely. Most government scientists were ordered to stay at home, their offices and labs closed or run by a skeleton staff of ‘essential’ workers. The National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation stopped processing grants, some government websites were made inaccessible and many important research programs were left hanging, potentially putting lives at risk in the case of some disease studies. [Nature Magazine] Editorial

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 14th Annual World Vaccine Congress 2014
March 24-26, 2014
Washington, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Laboratory Supervisor (Cambridge Institute for Medical Research [CIMR])

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Bioinformatics in Human Immunology Research (Singapore Immunology Network [A*STAR])

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunity & Inflammation Program (Vaccine & Gene Institute of Florida)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Melanoma Biology (Gustave Roussy Cancer Institute)

PhD Research Position – Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Mesenchymal Cell Research (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Cell Culture Media & Matrices (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Quality Control Analyst – Media (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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