Volume 1.27 | Sep 17

Human Immunology News 1.27 September 17, 2013
Human Immunology News
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TOP STORY
Immune System Marker Tied to Improved Bone Marrow Transplant Outcomes
Researchers reviewed the outcomes of the 313 bone marrow transplants performed at St. Jude during the decade ending in January 2010. They found that patients were far more likely to have survived the transplant and far less likely to had their disease progress if their new bone marrow came from donors whose natural killer cells included the same version of the protein, rather than the alternative form. [Press release from St. Jude Children’s Hospital discussing online prepublication in the Journal of Clinical Oncology]
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Gene Expression Profiling Using Nanostring Digital RNA Counting to Identify Potential Target Antigens for Melanoma Immunotherapy
A Nanostring probeset was designed containing 97 genes, 72 of which are considered potential candidate genes for immunotherapy. Five established melanoma cell lines, 59 resected metastatic melanoma tumors, and 31 normal tissue samples were profiled and analyzed using Nanostring technology. [Clin Cancer Res] Abstract | Press Release

A Distinct Human CD4+ T Cell Subset that Secretes CXCL13 in Rheumatoid Synovitis
Human CD4+ T cells in synovitis of rheumatoid arthritis produce CXCL13, a chemokine crucial for the formation of germinal center. Investigators aimed to determine the relevance of this population to known subsets of helper T cells and to proinflammatory cytokines and how these cells are generated. [Arthritis Rheum] Abstract

Estrogen Receptor Alpha Regulates TRIM21 Expression, Contributing to Dysregulated Cytokine Production in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Results demonstrated a role for estrogen in the regulation of tripartite motif-containing protein 21 (TRIM21) expression through an estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) dependent mechanism, a pathway which they observed to be overactive in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Treatment of monocytes with an ERα antagonist abrogated estrogen induced TRIM21 expression and as a consequence decreased IL-23 expression. [Arthritis Rheum] Abstract

T300A Variant of Autophagy ATG16L1 Gene Is Associated with Decreased Antigen Sampling and Processing by Dendritic Cells in Pediatric Crohn’s Disease
The single-nucleotide polymorphism T300A of ATG16L1, a Crohn’s disease (CD)-associated gene, is responsible for decreased autophagy. Researchers investigated the effects of this single-nucleotide polymorphism on the uptake and processing of antigens by dendritic cells (DCs) and the interaction between DC and intestinal epithelium in pediatric patients with CD. [Inflamm Bowel Dis] Abstract

The Impact of T-Cell Depletion Techniques on the Outcome after Haploidentical Hematopoietic SCT
Scientists studied the effect of in vitro T-cell depletion (TCD) with graft engineering (CD34 selection or CD3/CD19 depletion, 74%) or in vivo TCD using alemtuzumab on outcome, immune reconstitution and infections after haploidentical hematopoietic SCT. [Bone Marrow Tranpl] Abstract

Early Detection of Neutralizing Antibodies to Interferon-Beta in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: Binding Antibodies Predict Neutralizing Antibody Development
The authors investigated whether early binding antibody titers or different interferon-beta (IFN-b) biomarkers predict neutralizing antibodies evolution. They included patients with multiple sclerosis or clinically isolated syndrome receiving de novo IFN-b treatment in this prospective European multicenter study. [Mult Scler] Abstract

Interferon-α Abrogates the Suppressive Effect of Apoptotic Cells on Dendritic Cells in an In Vitro Model of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Pathogenesis
Scientists investigated the characteristics of apoptotic neutrophils and monocyte-derived dendritic cells of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, their interaction, and the influence of autoantibodies and inflammatory cytokines on this interaction. [J Rheumatol] Abstract

Baicalein Inhibits Interleukin-1β-Induced Proliferation of Human Rheumatoid Arthritis Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes
Considering its anti-proliferatory effects on various cancer cells, the authors investigated the effects of baicalein on interleukin-1 beta-induced proliferation of human rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes. [Inflammation] Abstract

Human Leukocyte Antigen-G and Regulatory T Cells during Specific Immunotherapy for Pollen Allergy
Researchers investigated the effects of allergen-specific immunotherapy on T cells, on immunomodulation of human leukocyte antigen-G, which has been associated with allergy, on regulatory cytokine expression, and on serum allergen-specific antibody subclasses. [Int Arch Allergy Immunol] Abstract

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REVIEWS
The Two Sides of HER2/Neu: Immune Escape versus Surveillance
The processes involved in HER2-mediated adaptive and innate immunity and the molecular mechanisms underlying the escape of HER2-expressing tumor cells from immune surveillance, particularly from cytotoxic T cells, are discussed. Implementing this knowledge in clinical trials to revert immune evasion may help optimize immunotherapies directed against HER2-expressing tumors. [Trends Mol Med] Abstract

Innate Immune Cells in Asthma
Epithelial cells contribute to the activation and the survival of mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils and group 2 innate lymphoid cells. In turn, these innate cells can activate dendritic cells to sustain T helper 2 (Th2) immunity. The authors review the role played by these different populations of immune cells in the pathogenesis of asthma and how they interact to orchestrate Th2 immunity. [Trends Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
NewLink Genetics Completes Patient Enrollment in Phase III Algenpantucel-L (IMPRESS) Clinical Study
NewLink Genetics Corporation announced that a major milestone has been reached in the IMPRESS (Immunotherapy for Pancreatic Resectable cancer Survival Study) Phase III clinical trial of algenpantucel-L. The accrual goal of 722 subjects with surgically resected pancreatic cancer has been met. The study examines the lead product candidate from NewLink’s proprietary HyperAcuteTM immunotherapy platform, algenpantucel-L, which is designed to stimulate the human immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells. [NewLink Genetics Corporation] Press Release

Coronado Biosciences Announces Initiation of Phase II Study Evaluating TSO in Ulcerative Colitis
Coronado Biosciences, Inc. announced the initiation of a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-sponsored phase II study evaluating TSO (Trichuris suis ova) for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. This multi-center study will be conducted by the Autoimmunity Centers of Excellence, which are funded through a multi-million dollar grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the NIH. [Coronado Biosciences, Inc.] Press Release

First Study to Investigate the Human Genome in Multiple Sclerosis
The National Institutes of Health awarded Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason a $1.9 million grant to find marks in the human genome which can explain why some white blood cells cause damage to the spinal cord and brain in multiple sclerosis (MS). This is the first study to look for molecular changes in the genome of specific immune cells responsible for the devastation caused by MS. [Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason] Press Release

RedHill Biopharma Announces Positive Pre-Clinical Results for Lupus with RHB-104
RedHill Biopharma Ltd. announced positive results from a pre-clinical study with RHB-104 for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, a systemic autoimmune disease causing inflammation and damage to tissues in various parts of the body. In light of the positive results, the Company is currently assessing the next steps in the clinical development program, including a possible Phase IIa clinical study. [RedHill Biopharma Ltd.] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
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EVENTS
NEW FOCIS (Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies) 2014
June 25-28, 2014
Chicago, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Research Position – Immune Recovery after Hematopoeitic Stem Cell Transplantation (University of Minnesota – Twin Cities)

Fellowship Researcher – Rare Diseases of the Immune System (Dr. von Haunersches Kinderspital)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunity & Inflammation Program (Vaccine & Gene Institute of Florida)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Melanoma Biology (Gustave Roussy Cancer Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Innate Immune Signaling in the Developing Intestine (University of Connecticut Health Center)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Role of the IL-23/IL-17 Axis in Inflammatory Arthritis (UC Davis Medical Center)

PhD Research Position – Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)


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