Volume 1.17 | Jul 9

Human Immunology News 1.17 July 9, 2013
Human Immunology News
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TOP STORY
Transdermal Application of Myelin Peptides in Multiple Sclerosis Treatment
Researchers assessed the safety and efficacy of transdermally applied myelin peptides in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.[JAMA Neurology] Abstract | Press Release
A New System for High-Throughput Cell Isolation Directly from Whole Blood
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Detection and Isolation of Auto-Reactive Human Antibodies from Primary B Cells
Investigators describe a high-throughput single-cell assay, microengraving, for the screening, characterization and isolation of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rheumatoid arthritis patients. [Methods] Abstract

Enhanced and Persistent Levels of IL-17+CD4+ T Cells and Serum IL-17 in Patients with Early Inflammatory Arthritis
The authors compared, longitudinally and cross-sectionally, the levels of cytokine-expressing cells in peripheral blood (PB) from patients with early inflammatory arthritis (EIA), to those in established rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and healthy controls (HC). PB mononuclear cells from HC, patients with EIA or RA were stimulated with PMA/Ionomycin for three hours, and stained for cell markers and cytokines. [Clin Exp Immunol] Abstract

Involvement of Levels of Toll Like Receptor-4 in Monocytes, CD4 + T-Lymphocyte Subsets, and Cytokines in Patients with Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura
Researchers evaluated the expression of toll like receptor-4 (TLR4) in monocytes, the plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-23, IL-17 and the profiles of T helper (Th)17, Th1, Th2 cells in 70 patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and 31 healthy controls. In addition, they evaluated IL-2 and regulator T cells in 46 cases of 70 patients with ITP and the same 31 controls. [Thromb Res] Abstract

Involvement of Fibrocytes in Allergen-Induced T Cell Responses and Rhinovirus Infections in Asthma
The authors demonstrated that allergen-pulsed circulating fibrocytes from patients with allergic asthma are potent inducers of the predominant release of the T helper type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 from autologous naïve and memory CD4+ T cells. [Biochem Biophys Res Commun] Abstract

Involvement of Th17 Cells in Patients of Urothelial Carcinoma of Bladder: Role of Th17 Cells in Urinary Bladder Cancer
Scientists assessed the expression of Th17 related cytokines, RORγt and distribution of Th17 cells to understand its involvement in bladder cancer. In their study, frequency of Th17 cells was significantly higher in patients than controls. Circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17A, IL-23 and IL-6 were also significantly elevated in patients. Relative mRNA expression of IL-17A and RORγt in PBMCs and fold change in gene expression in tissues was found to be significantly elevated. [Hum Immunol] Abstract

Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) from Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients Linked to Decreased Immune Function and Response to Treatment
Researchers examined the use of CTCs as an effective measure of treatment efficacy and immune system function in metastatic breast cancer patients. They obtained peripheral blood samples from 45 patients previously diagnosed with metastatic disease originating in the breast. Using TLR agonists that bind TLR ligands and upregulate immune effects versus unstimulated cells, they calculated a percent specific lysis using chromium-51 assay to illustrate the functional abilities of patient natural killer cells. [Exp Mol Pathol] Abstract

Human Enterovirus Species B in Ileocecal Crohn’s Disease
Scientists hypothesized that human enterovirus species B (HEV-B), which are ssRNA viruses with dual tropism both for the intestinal epithelium and the nervous system, could play a role in ileocecal Crohn’s disease (ICD). They used immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to study the general presence of HEV-B and the presence of the two HEV-B subspecies, Coxsackie B virus and Echovirus, in ileocecal resections from nine children with advanced, stricturing ICD and six patients with volvulus, and in intestinal biopsies from 15 Crohn’s disease patients at the time of diagnosis. [Clin Transl Gastroenterol]
Full Article
| Press Release

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REVIEWS
The Role of Dendritic Cells in Autoimmunity
The authors discuss the proposed roles of dendritic cells (DCs) in immunological tolerance, the effect of the gain or loss of DCs on autoimmunity and DC-intrinsic molecular regulators that help to prevent the development of autoimmunity. They also review the emerging roles of DCs in several autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune myocarditis, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, type 1 diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

Interleukin-7: Fuel for the Autoimmune Attack
In the first part of this review, the functions of interleukin (IL)-7 in the immune system are concisely described, providing a basis for understanding their potential role in promoting autoimmune responses. In the second part, current knowledge about the role of IL-7 in various autoimmune conditions is reviewed. [J Autoimmun] Abstract

IL-17A: A Unique Pathway in Immune-Mediated Diseases: Psoriasis, Psoriatic Arthritis, and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Experimental evidence points to the importance of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-17A in the pathogenesis of several immunoinflammatory diseases including psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Although a principal effector of Th17 cells, IL-17A is produced by multiple other cell types including CD8+ T cells and γδ T cells, and is found in high levels associated with mast cells and neutrophils at sites of skin and joint disease in humans. [Immunology] Abstract | Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
National MS Society Commits $2.5 Million for Research by Pediatric MS Network
The National Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Society has just committed $2.5 million to support research by the Network of Pediatric MS Centers beginning July 1, 2013. Funding for the nine-center network provides essential infrastructure to facilitate research, including searching for the cause of MS by studying risk factors for the disease in children, close to the time of exposure. [The National Multiple Sclerosis Society]
Press Release


Genzyme Receives Positive CHMP Opinion for LEMTRADA™ (Alemtuzumab) in Europe
Sanofi and its subsidiary Genzyme announced that the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency has issued a positive opinion for approval of LEMTRADA™ for the treatment of adult patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis with active disease defined by clinical or imaging features. [Sanofi] Press Release

DBV Technologies Completes Enrollment of Phase IIb VIPES Study, the First-Ever Global Trial in Desensitization to Peanut Allergy
DBV Technologies announced the completion of enrollment in its global phase IIb clinical trial, VIPES (Viaskin Peanut’s Efficacy and Safety), a 12-month treatment study with Viaskin® Peanut. VIPES started in August 2012 and is being conducted in Europe and in North America with a total of 22 investigators, who collectively screened and randomized 315 and 221 peanut-allergic subjects respectively. VIPES’ patient population includes 113 chidren, 73 adolescents and 35 adults. [DBV Technologies] Press Release

Bellicum Pharmaceuticals Initiates Clinical Trial with Novel Controlled Dendritic Cell Immunotherapy in Metastatic Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer
Bellicum Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced it has initiated treatment of the first patient in a study of BPX-201 dendritic cells in combination with activating agent AP1903. The Phase I dose escalation trial in patients with metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer was designed to evaluate the safety, tolerability and clinical outcomes of BPX-201 and AP1903, which incorporate the Company’s second generation DeCIDe™ immunotherapy technology. [Bellicum Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 2013 British Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics (BSHI) Annual Conference
September 4-5, 2013
Manchester, United Kingdom

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellowship – Inflammation & Immunology Translational Development (Celgene Corporation)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Epigenetics of Autoimmune Disorders (Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute [IDIBELL])

Assistant Professor – Human Immunology (The Vaccine & Gene Therapy Institute of Florida)

PhD Research Position – Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Pathophysiology of Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Skin Diseases in Character (Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II)

Research Scientist/Senior Research Officer – Monoclonal Antibodies (Bioprocessing Technology Institute/A*STAR)

Director of Cell Processing Facility (S L Collins Associates, Inc.)


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