Volume 1.15 | Jun 25

Human Immunology News 1.15 June 25, 2013
Human Immunology News
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CD4+ Follicular Helper T Cell Infiltration Predicts Breast Cancer Survival
Researchers aimed to produce an image of CD4+ T cells infiltrating breast tumors using limited ex vivo manipulation to better understand the in vivo differences associated with patient prognosis. They performed comprehensive molecular profiling of infiltrating CD4+ T cells isolated from untreated invasive primary tumors and found that the infiltrating T cell subpopulations included follicular helper T (Th) cells, which have not previously been found in solid tumors, as well as Th1, Th2, and Th17 effector memory cells and Tregs. [J Clin Invest] Full Article
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
B7-H5 Costimulates Human T Cells via CD28H
Scientists describe a new CD28 homologue (CD28H) that has unique functions in the regulation of the human immune response and is absent in mice. CD28H is constitutively expressed on all naive T cells. Repetitive antigenic exposure, however, induces a complete loss of CD28H on many T cells, and CD28H negative T cells have a phenotype of terminal differentiation and senescence. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Exploring the MHC-Peptide Matrix of Central Tolerance in the Human Thymus
Ever since it was discovered that central tolerance to self is imposed on developing T cells in the thymus through their interaction with self-peptide major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) on thymic antigen-presenting cells, immunologists have speculated about the nature of these peptides, particularly in humans. To shed light on the so-far unknown human thymic peptide repertoire, researchers analyzed peptides eluted from isolated thymic dendritic cells, dendritic cell-depleted antigen-presenting cells and whole thymus. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Prospective Assessment of Antidonor Cellular Alloreactivity Is a tool for Guidance of Immunosuppression in Kidney Transplantation
Immune monitoring of antidonor alloreactive memory/effector T cells using an IFN-γ Elispot has been shown to distinguish patients at risk for immune-mediated graft dysfunction, suggesting a potential tool for immunosuppression individualization. In this nonrandomized study, the authors prospectively assessed donor and nondonor T-cell alloreactivity in 60 highly alloreactive patients receiving calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression and in non-T-cell alloreactive transplant recipients treated with a calcineurin inhibitor-free regimen. [Kidney Int] Abstract

CD164 and FCRL3 Are Highly Expressed on CD4+CD26-T Cells in Sézary Syndrome Patients
Sézary syndrome (SS) cells express cell surface molecules also found on normal activated CD4 T cells. In an effort to find a more specific surface marker for malignant SS cells, a microarray analysis of gene expression was performed. Results showed significantly increased levels of mRNA for CD164, a sialomucin found on human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells, and FCRL3, a molecule present on a subset of human natural T regulatory cells. [J Invest Dermatol] Abstract

ZAP70 Expression in Regulatory T Cells in Allergic Rhinitis: Effect of Immunotherapy
Scientists assessed if immunotherapy affects regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) and their expression of zeta chain associated protein kinase (Zap70), which is essential for T cell activation and intracellular signal downstream transduction. A three-year prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of grass SIT was conducted. Forty-one patients sensitized to grass pollen with intermittent allergic rhinitis were randomized to receive SIT or placebo and 15 healthy were included as a control. [Clin Exp Allergy] Abstract

Impaired Toll-Like Receptor 8 Signaling in Multiple Sclerosis
Investigators determined if Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is functionally altered in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors and patients with relapsing remitting MS were stimulated with specific agonists of Toll-like receptors 3, 7, 8 and 9. [J Neuroinflammation]
Full Article

Defective CD8+CD28- Regulatory T Cell Suppressor Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis Is Restored by TNF Inhibitor Therapy
Researchers characterized the peripheral blood CD8+CD28- regulatory T cells contribution to the immunoregulatory network in health and in rheumatoid arthritis. [Clin Exp Immunol] Full Article

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The Influence of Aging on the Development and Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis
The population of elderly individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is expanding, due mainly to increasing life expectancy. A variety of theories have been proposed to explain the aging process, including accumulation of DNA damage and resultant changes in biological processes. Such changes can influence the development and/or course of disease. This review focuses on the pathophysiological aspects of aging and their implications for the management of RA in elderly patients. [Nat Rev Rheumatol] Abstract

Immune-Based Mechanisms of Cytotoxic Chemotherapy: Implications for the Design of Novel and Rationale-Based Combined Treatments against Cancer
Researchers provide an extensive overview of the multiple immune-based mechanisms exploited by the most commonly employed cytotoxic drugs, with the final aim of identifying prerequisites for optimal combination with immunotherapy strategies for the development of more effective treatments against cancer. [Cell Death Differ] Abstract

Aberrant B Cell Selection and Activation in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
In this review, the authors not only highlight the intrinsic B cell defects that facilitate the persistence of autoreactive B cells and their activation, but in addition they focus on B cell extrinsic signals derived from T cells and innate immune cells that lower the activation threshold for B cells. [Int Rev Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.

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Ablynx’s Partner Initiates a Phase I Study and Doses First Healthy Volunteer with Alx-0761
Ablynx announced that its partner Merck Serono, a division of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, has dosed the first healthy volunteers in a Phase I clinical trial as part of the evaluation of the Nanobody®, ALX-0761, for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. [Ablynx] Press Release

OncoSec Medical Announces Completion of Enrollment of Phase II Metastatic Melanoma Trial

OncoSec Medical Inc. announced the completion of patient enrollment in a Phase II clinical trial of ImmunoPulse for metastatic melanoma patients. The Phase II trial is evaluating efficacy of ImmunoPulse in subjects with Stage IIIb to IVa in-transit cutaneous metastatic melanoma with a primary endpoint of overall objective response at six months as measured by modified RECIST. Secondary endpoints for this study will evaluate safety and tolerability, as well as local response of treated lesions at Day 90. [OncoSec Medical Inc.] Press Release
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Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Global Technology Community (GTC): Infectious Diseases World Summit 2013
July 8-10, 2013
Boston, United States

NEW The 2013 Pregnancy Summit
October 16-18, 2013
London, United Kingdom

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.
NEW PhD Student – Systems Pharmacology of Clinical Immuno-Inflammation (Leiden University)

NEW Pathophysiology of Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Skin Diseases in Character (Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II)

Research Scientist/Senior Research Officer – Monoclonal Antibodies (Bioprocessing Technology Institute/A*STAR)

Research Associate – Cellular Immunology (EMD)

Director of Cell Processing Facility (S L Collins Associates, Inc.)

Assistant Professor – Cancer Immunology (Mayo Clinic)

PhD Position – Immunotherapy (Medical University of Vienna/Christian Doppler-Laboratory for Cardio-Metabolic Immunotherapy)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cell and Cancer Biology (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)

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