Volume 1.03 | Apr 2

Human Immunology News 1.03 April 2, 2013
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     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Pitt Team Finds Protein that Ramps Up Inflammation, and Agents that Can Block It
Researchers found that blood samples from 16 people who had sepsis revealed higher levels of Fbxo3 – along with other inflammatory proteins – and lower levels of Fbxl2 than samples from seven patients who did not have sepsis or lung infection. Based on the structure of Fbxo3, they developed a family of small molecules with the aim of inhibiting its activity. Administration of one of them, called BC-1215, led to reduced inflammatory markers and improved lung mechanics in mouse models of pneumonia and sepsis. [Press release from UPMC discussing online prepublication in Nature Immunology] Press Release | Abstract

Learn more about the new smartphone app for human blood cell frequencies

PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Preapoptotic Protease Calpain-2 Is Frequently Suppressed in Adult T-Cell Leukemia
To identify novel therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers for adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), scientists employed a focused proteomic profiling of CD4+CD25+CCR4+ T-cell subpopulation in which human T-lymphotropic virus type-1-infected cells were enriched. Among the identified 17 classifier proteins, alpha-II spectrin was drastically accumulated in infected T-cells derived from ATL patients, while its digestive protease calpain-2 was significantly down-regulated. [Blood] Abstract

The Proteasome Inhibitor Carfilzomib Functions Independently of p53 to Induce Cytotoxicity and an Atypical NF-κB Response in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells
Researchers investigated the effects of the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib in CLL cells. Tumor cells from chronic 
lymphocytic leukemia patients were assayed in vitro using immunoblotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. [Clin Cancer Res] Abstract

Oncolytic Adenovirus with Temozolomide Induces Autophagy and Antitumor Immune Responses in Cancer Patients
Researchers found that the combination of oncolytic adenovirus with low-dose temozolomide and metronomic cyclophosphamide increased tumor cell autophagy, elicited antitumor immune responses, and showed promising safety and efficacy. [Mol Ther] Abstract

T Cells Target APOBEC3 Proteins in HIV-1-Infected Humans and SIV-Infected Indian Rhesus Macaques
Using peptides derived from multiple Vif-sensitive APOBEC3 proteins, the authors identified APOBEC3-specific T cell responses in both HIV-1-infected patients and SIV-infected rhesus macaques. These results raise the possibility that these T cell responses may be part of the larger anti-retroviral immune response. [J Virol] Abstract | Full Article

Menstrual Cycle and Reproductive Aging Alters Immune Reactivity, NGF Expression, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Intracellular Signaling Pathways in the Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Healthy Women
Results suggest that alterations in the levels of gonadal hormones are associated with immunosenescence characterized by decreased IFN-γ production and proliferation of T lymphocytes, decline in nerve growth factor (NGF) expression, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, nitric oxide production, and signaling mechanisms and thus, may increase the incidence of diseases and cancer in women. [Brain Behav Immun] Abstract

Assembly and Activation of Alternative Complement Components on Endothelial Cell-Anchored Ultra-Large Von Willebrand Factor Links Complement and Hemostasis-Thrombosis
Investigators quantified gene expression of these complement components in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells by real-time PCR: C3 and C5; complement factor B, CFD, CFP, CFH and CFI of the alternative complement pathway; and C4 of the classical and lectin complement pathways. [PLoS One]
Full Article | Press Release | Video

A Variant in IRF3 Impacts on the Clinical Outcome of AML Patients Submitted to Allo-SCT
IFN regulatory factor-3 (IRF3), by modulating innate immune reactions, could impact on the incidence and intensity of GVL and GVHD. The authors analyzed two gene variants in IRF3 (rs7251 and rs2304205) on the clinical outcome of 249 AML patients submitted to HLA-identical sibling allo-SCT. [Bone Marrow Transplant] Abstract

Increased CD38 Expression in T Cells and Circulating Anti-CD38 IgG Autoantibodies Differentially Correlate with Distinct Cytokine Profiles and Disease Activity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients
Researchers found that CD38 expression in CD4+, CD8+, or CD25+ T cells was significantly higher in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients than in normal controls. Increased CD38 expression in SLE T cells correlated with plasma levels of Th2 and Th1 cytokines, and was more prevalent in clinically active SLE patients than in normal controls. [Cytokine] Abstract

Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV

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REVIEWS

Treating B-Cell Cancer with T cells Expressing Anti-CD19 Chimeric Antigen Receptors
Most B-cell malignancies express CD19, and a majority of patients with B-cell malignancies are not cured by current standard therapies. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are fusion proteins consisting of antigen recognition moieties and T-cell activation domains. T cells can be genetically modified to express CARs, and adoptive transfer of anti-CD19 CAR T cells is now being tested in clinical trials. [Nat Rev Clin Oncol] Abstract

Immune System Targeting by Biodegradable Nanoparticles for Cancer Vaccines 
This review discusses the immunological mechanisms behind cancer vaccines, including the role of dendritic cells in the stimulation of T lymphocytes and the use of Toll-like receptor ligands as adjuvants is discussed. [J Control Release] Abstract

Reciprocal Crosstalk between Dendritic Cells and Natural Killer Cells under the Effects of PGE2 in Immunity and Immunopathology
This review highlights the effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on dendritic cell-natural killer cell crosstalk and its subsequent impact on immune regulations in normal and immunopathological processes. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the human immunology research field.

INDUSTRY NEWS

Sanofi and Transgene Announce Innovative Long-Term Collaboration for the Production of Immunotherapy Treatments
Sanofi and Transgene SA announced a collaboration agreement for the creation of a new state-of-the-art industrial platform dedicated to the production of immunotherapy products including Transgene’s therapeutic products. [Sanofi] Press Release

Promising Stem Cell Therapy for Leukemia Patients

Leukemia patients receive a bone marrow transplant, which allows them to build a “new” immune system. However, this immune system not only attacks cancer cells but healthy tissue too. Special antibodies will be used to protect healthy tissue in future. [Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft] Press Release

Grant: Cooperative Centers on Human Immunology (U19)

The purpose of this Funding Opportunity is to support hypothesis-testing, mechanistic studies on the activation and regulation of human immune responses in the context of infectious disease. This research program was initiated by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in fiscal year 2003 and is being renewed for the second time through open competition. [National Institutes of Health] Link

POLICY NEWS

Harper Government Announces New Personalized Health Research Projects across Canada
Canadians with debilitating diseases will soon benefit from new personalized approaches to treatment thanks to researchers across the country and funding from the Harper Government. Gary Goodyear, Minister of State (Science and Technology), announced the results of a major $150-million genomics and personalized health competition, a Genome Canada-Canadian Institutes of Health Research partnership. [Harper Government, Canada] Press Release

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW World Asthma, Allergy & COPD Forum
April 27-30, 2013
London, United Kingdom

NEW
Immunology Symposium 2013
April 28-30, 2013
Buonas, Switzerland

Visit
our events page to see a complete list of events in the human immunology community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Faculty Positions – Human and Translational Immunology (Yale University)

Research Fellow – Readership in Immunology (University of Edinburgh)

Postdoctoral Position – Type 1 Diabetes and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (University of Florida)

Postdoctoral Positions – Medical Science (University of Oslo)

Postdoctoral Position – Autoimmune Tolerance (Children’s Hospital of New Orleans)

Senior Director – Department of Immunology (Genentech, Inc.)



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